International name of Perseus U.S. avocado (Persea americana). This is one of the many species of Perseus Lavrov family (Lauraceae). In the wild American Perseus (avocado), found in the mountainous region stretching from Mexico. Of all the Perseus only avocado has edible fruit, rich in the same vitamins, minerals and fats.
Avocado / Perseus American /. Plant avocado. Description.
Avocado, or Perseus American — a fast-growing evergreen fruit tree with a spherical crown, growing to 20 meters in height and crown diameter of more than 6 meters, according to some estimates up to 15 meters. However, culture does not exceed the height of the avocado 3 meters, and more cultured 2-meter high trees. Avocados are very heat-loving plant and grows well only in moist subtropical and tropical climates. For this approach, any soil, but they should be moist, breathable, fertile, drained and deep. Perseus shade-American culture, but forms a dense planting small fruits, so these trees are grown in small groups. Avocado plants need protection from the wind, or suffer from dehydration and poor pollination. This skoroplodnost fruit culture, which comes into fruition for 2-4 years after planting, the seed breeding at 6-8 years.
The plant has a direct avocado silnovetvisty trunk with a dense wood. Its elliptical evergreen leaves are 25-35 cm in length and changed every 2-3 years. The leaves are rich in essential oils, avocados, and some species have a pronounced anise scent. Their antiseptic anti-inflammatory property is often used for medicinal purposes. However, in animals eating the fresh leaves can cause poisoning.
I wonder is flowering avocado. From the formation of buds (from October) before the blooming flowers (March — July) in avocado is about six months. Of the 200 flowers per inflorescence in only 2-4% by fruit. Well, this is sufficient to obtain a good yield (up to 200 kg per tree). Avocado flowers are very small, less than 1 cm, yellowish-green, inconspicuous. Many of them do not form pollen, especially in view of the structure. The resulting pollen is sticky and is carried by the wind. Only bees but moths attracted by the smell of nectar, transfer it from flower to flower. Although the avocado flowers bisexual, they are arranged so that it is not capable of self-pollination. As disclosed in anticipation of the pollen of a flower pistil (female phase), the anthers of a flower are not yet ripe for pollination. But the flower is arranged so that the next phase of flowering rose about a day. When he re-opens with ripe pollen (male phase), its anthers have withered, so there is only a single-pollinated flowers. In some varieties of avocado flowering phase of female accounts for the morning, the other side of sorts — for the evening. Men phases of these varieties also occur at different times of day. Therefore, when growing avocado plant near varieties with different types of flowering: from varieties for which the female phase of flowering occurs in the first half of the day, plant varieties, which at this time of day have male phase of flowering.
Ripening avocados from different geographical groups have at different times of the year. Therefore, in Europe, for example, avocados can be purchased throughout the year. The avocado of the tree is removed from the immature, so they can be transported. They are packaged and sent to the trading network, including in other countries. At a temperature of +3-5 ° C avocados are well preserved, and at a temperature of +25-30 degrees C reaches its maturity. In this state they go to the shops, and almost ready for use. Ripe avocados should be under pressure to leave a small dent, just as if we chose a pear. If the fruit is still firm, it must hold for 3-5 days at warm temperatures, such as a kitchen cabinet shelf. After ripening avocados can be eaten. There are about 600 varieties of avocados, including those suitable for commercial cultivation. The fruits of various kinds are different and can be pear-shaped, oval or spherical shape, a length of 7.5 to 35 cm in diameter and 15 cm, weight of our pickles and up to 1.8 kg. The average weight of commercial avocado 200-300 g Peel avocado fruits of different varieties is smooth and bumpy, thin and rough, the color of ripe fruit dark green, yellow or almost black.
Botanically the fruit of avocado — a berry (drupe). It has a fleshy, oily cream (yellowish or greenish), pulp, representing up to 93% of the fruit, and a single large seed (spherical, ovoid, conical or flattened).
Variety of avocados: Mexican, Guatemalan, West Indies (Antilles).
All varieties of avocados are divided in their place of growth in three major geographical varieties: Mexican, Guatemalan and West Indies (Antilles). The most cold-hardy varieties of avocado, capable of withstanding minor freezing temperatures, this Mexican variety. Their fruits are the smallest of all the cultivated avocados weighing up to 300 g and the fat content up to 35%. Guatemalan varieties of avocado a thermophilic, and the fruits of their larger, weighing up to 800 g fat and 20%. Are the most heat-loving West Indian (Antillean) avocado varieties that grow only in tropical climates. They produced large fruits weighing up to 800 g with a small, relative to other varieties, fat to 10%. In commercial purposes is grown mostly hybrids of these species, which have improved the quality of fruit and more unpretentious. Avocado has valuable nutritional properties, which allow extensive use of it in the diet of people around the world.