Banana



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Banana fruitBanana

Bananas are fairly high in calories and can quickly recover the energy spent during prolonged physical stress.

Latin name: Musa.

English title: Banana.

Family: Banana — Musaceae.

Parts Used: flowers, leaves, roots, fruit.

Botanical description: banana — is a perennial herb with a strong root system. Banana tree is grass, so he does not have the trunk and branches. Straight from the rhizomes grow leaf stalks held tightly to each other. Outwardly, it looks like a tree trunk. At end of the «trunk» of the stems grow, «palm» leaves. Since banana — is grass, therefore, fruit plants — berry.

In total there are more than 550 varieties of bananas, but most of them are not used as food. Edible varieties conventionally divided into two main groups: dessert, and plantains. Dessert bananas are eaten raw or dried. It is these bananas are brought to our country. The second type — plantains — are «second» bread for the inhabitants of the tropics. They are tough and savory starchy pulp, therefore before eating fried or boiled. A raw plantains are used as forage for livestock.

Distribution: banana is grown in almost all countries, lying in a warm climate zone, and leading countries such as India, China, the Philippines, Ecuador and other Latin American countries.Banana fruit

Active ingredients:

100g banana contains:

• Water — 74 g

• Proteins — 1.55 g

• Fat — 0.12 mg

• Carbohydrates — 21.8 g (including mono-and di-saccharides — 19 g)

• Dietary fiber (fiber) — 1 g

• Organic acids — 0.5g

• Ash — 0.9 g

Vitamins in banana:

• Vitamins A (beta-carotene) — 0.12 mg

• Vitamins B1 (thiamine) — 0.037 mg

• Vitamins B2 (riboflavin) — 0.048 mg

• Niacin (vitamin B3 or vitamins PP) — 0.4 mg

• Folic acid (vitamin B9) — 10 mcg

• Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) – 10,7 mg

• Vitamins E (tocopherol) — 0.41 mg

Nutrients in bananas:

• Potassium — 348 mg

• Calcium — 11,9 mg

• Magnesium — 38,8 mg

• Sodium — 29,6 mg

• Phosphorus — 28 mg

Trace elements in bananas:

• Iron — 0.63 mg

• Copper — 0.161 mg

• Zinc — 0.12 mg

Edible banana varieties are divided into 2 main groups: sweet bananas that are used mainly in raw or dried, and plantains (or plane tree), which require the use of prior heat treatment.Banana fruit

The flesh is very sweet dessert varieties to taste, contains a lot of carbohydrates, vitamin C and some of the body needs minerals such as phosphorus, iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Platano (from the Spanish. Plantar — plant) — usually fruit with green or red skin and starchy, stiff and savory flesh, before eating them fried, boiled or steamed. Besides eating, plantains are often used as feed for livestock.

Caloric dessert bananas

• Green bananas — 108 kcal

• Ripe bananas — 65,5-111 kcal

• Dried banana — 298 kcal

Banana fruit can be called a «good mood.» After all, except that it contains tryptophan, which helps fight depression, color and flavor of the fruit will please any

Beware!

You should not eat bananas just before going to bed. Bananas for a long time to digest and difficult the flow of bile, which can cause fermentation in the stomach and bowel upset.

Bananas are not combined with sauerkraut and milk. Nutritionists have even given the recommendation to eat bananas between meals and do not drink water.

Bananas also contraindicated:

• in the acidity of the gastric juice

• When thrombophlebitis of varying difficulty

• a tendency to weight gain and obesity

• Ripe bananas can not be used for patients with diabetes, but this restriction does not apply to immature fruitBanana fruit

Banana — a perennial herb with a length of half a meter to 15 meters, depending on the species, and has more than 60 species. Bananas are home to tropical countries. Bananas are yellow so as red and black. In contrast to the yellow and red can not carry, they have very tender flesh.

In India and Brazil grow best bananas in the world.

Underripe bananas need to undermine, that they have not lost their taste and the flesh not turned. Bananas reduce the heat stored at 10-20 degrees, in the refrigerator, they begin to blacken, it is not desirable to store in a plastic bag.

Bananas are a staple food in some countries. They can be used in fresh and processed form. Of banana make flour, cooked jams and marmalades, make wine and syrup, fried, boiled, baked, dried, and even smoked.

In banana contains about 70% water, as well as fiber, starch, vitamins C, A, B vitamins, sugars, proteins, carbohydrates and some minerals. Eating fruits bananas improves mood, increases efficiency, reduces fatigue. Bananas contain more vitamin B6 than any other fruit, and this vitamin is responsible for good mood.

Athletes and people who want to gain weight, it is recommended to eat bananas every day. In the fasting days, those who can not tolerate hunger or suffering from atherosclerosis or hypertension, doctors are advised to include in the diet of the day the fruit of bananas.

Bananas are useful in diseases of the liver, kidneys, and stomatitis. In the gastro-intestinal diseases fruit banana is used as a weak laxative. Bananas also help with diarrhea. Bananas are slightly raised blood sugar levels, increase blood pressure and good influence on the nervous system. Some doctors argue that bananas are an excellent remedy for impotence. For certain types of allergies nutritionists recommend the banana diet, such a diet is suitable for children. But before the diet should consult a specialist.

Useful not only pulp bananas and banana peel. Ripe banana peel is applied to forehead to relieve headaches associated with migraines. Also helps with skin burns and boils, applying it to the inside of the place sores. The rind is the best natural treatment for warts on the soles of the feet: a banana peel is applied to the inner side of a wart, you need to peel the legs before a shower and then replaced with fresh skin, so to complete disappearance of warts.Banana fruit

Bananas — relatively heavy food, so they need to chew well, do not eat large portions and it is advisable not to eat them on an empty stomach. Because of the high sugar content in the pulp of bananas, should be consumed in limited quantities for people suffering from diabetes. Also suffered a heart attack, suffering from varicose veins and heart disease do not recommend eating bananas without limitation, as they contribute to thickening of blood.

Bananas also called the fruit of these plants, used as food. Currently, different varieties of sterile triploid kultigena Musa paradisiaca (artificial species not found in the wild), established on the basis of some of these plants are widely cultivated in tropical countries and many of them are among most important fraction eksporta.Banan crop ranks fourth place in the world, second only to rice, wheat and maize. Rod has over 40 species, distributed mainly in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. The northernmost species — Japanese Banana (Musa basjoo), originally from the Japanese Ryukyu Islands, is grown as an ornamental plant on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, the Crimea, and Georgia.

Banana prefers bright diffused light, direct sunlight should pritenit can clear tracing paper or thin cloth. The window for plodovogobanana should go to the south, southeast, east, or at least, to the west. Northern windows are not conducive to good growth and fruiting, while using the backlight, you can achieve little success. The best fit for a banana — a spacious wet greenhouse.

In spring and summer, the optimum temperature — 24-30 ° C, with constant moisture, in the summer do not allow the temperature drops below 16 ° C, as this may cause it to stop plant growth. In summer you can make the open air, but it should be pritenit the light. In the autumn-winter period is desirable to provide a rest period for the best growth and flowering plants contain in a bright room at 18-20 ° C, not lower than 16 ° C.Banana fruit

Water the banana growing season abundantly, but so that water does not stagnate in the pan, as this can lead to rotting of the plant. In the fall and winter watering banana cut, watered sparingly and cautiously (if the plants are kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C), abundant polivpri low temperatures can lead to rotting of the roots of the plant. If you can not provide the plant the desired temperature for a period of rest, and it is kept at a higher temperature, watering produce as drying topsoil and constantly sprayed. Watering with a soft well-settled water at room temperature or at 2-3 degrees higher.

Banana prefer high humidity, with its lack of it dry leaves, they lose their luster. Regular spraying is good for well-being of the plant to increase humidity can pomestitrastenie on a tray with damp moss, pebbles, expanded clay or other porous material. Occasionally useful for plant wash in the shower, but if the plant is large enough, the leaves can be cleaned with a damp sponge or cloth.

In the growing season every two weeks a feeding, alternating between the mineral and organic fertilizers. Feeding is carried out after watering, not to burn young roots.

Repot the plant every year, but it is better to handle, pots used for two to three centimeters in diameter larger than the previous. Purchased the plant is transplanted into a commensurate plant capacity. If you purchased the plant in the winter months, let it come to life after a career change. Carefully inspect it, if not hanging out of the bottom of the pot the roots, and the plant does not turn yellow and fall leaves, transplant can be left until spring. If these signs are observed, the plant can be transplanted. When transplanting the roots of plants treated for 5 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, examines the roots, brown and unhealthy removed and slices sprinkle with powdered charcoal. Pots for a banana to take a broad and roomy, as the shortage of space in the pot plant growth may stop or slow down. Planted banana should always deeper than it was originally planted. This promotes the formation and growth of additional roots, and in the future — the best yields. Try not to disturb the transplant root system. Banana after transplantation to pour plenty of warm water having stood and put on a bright place. Two — three days of the ground beneath the plant to proryhlit carefully so as not to damage the roots.Banana fruit

The substrate is composed of turf, humus, leaf soil and sand (2:2:2:1) or sod land, humus and sand (2:2:1) to add bone meal or horn shavings. At the bottom of the pot should be good drainage, clay, gravel or various harmless loose or granular materials. Drainage layer thickness depends on the size of the pot, ranging from 3 to 10 cm surface drainage must necessarily cover the wet river sand to the soil did not penetrate to the bottom of the pot and does not prevent a drain excess water for irrigation.

Bananas are propagated by suckers, by dividing the fleshy rhizomes, and some species — seeds.

Seeds are sown in moist substrate, consisting of equal parts of the leaf, peat, sand and charcoal. Before planting the seeds scarifying (machined), and then soaked in warm water for 1-2 days, changing the water periodically. The seeds are buried to a depth equal to their size, cover glass case or a plastic bag. Necessary to maintain the temperature of 24-26 ° C, constantly and regularly spray the air, using the mini-teplichke sprouting faster. Shoots appear after one or two months. When useyantsev will have two or three leaves, they dive into the corresponding size of the pot, filled with a substrate consisting of hardwood, peat soil and sand with good drainage. Seedlings grow quickly. With good care can bloom at the age of one year.

Offspring are separated from the mother plant, along with part of the rhizome. Slice pripudrivayut powdered charcoal. Young plants are planted in the substrate of the two parts of the leaf, the two parts of peat soil and sand.

Features: Banana — demanding to moisture, light and heat plant. If you can not provide him with the best living conditions, do not take up its cultivation.

Possible difficulties: At room conditions in the absence of light and dry plant enters into a forced (October to February), the period of rest. At this time the banana watered less often, especially in the flat temperature of 18 ° C, otherwise frequent watering will lead to root rot, in this case a banana leaf edges turn brown and dry up, and the growth continues even at high temperatures and good lighting in the spring. If it will be seen, the plant should be immediately transplanted to a new land, previously rewashing water the roots with a sharp knife and cutting off the rotten parts. Places to trim the roots sprinkled with powdered charcoal or ashes to stop further decay.Banana fruit

Plant growth is slowed or stopped: The reason may be too close dishes in which the plant grows. Carefully remove it from the pot and check if the roots braided whole earth com, to be transplanted plant. Another reason may be too low temperature in summer optimum 24-30 ° C, not lower than 16 ° C, as the problem may be a lack of light.

 



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