Grapes. Grapes (Vitis), a genus of plant of the family Vinogradov. There are about 75 species, distributed mainly in the areas of warm and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The root system is strong. Barrel — vine (in the forest community Grapes — climbing plant). Perennial shoots reach a considerable thickness. Annual shoots are long (3-5 m), thin, articulated structure. Each node shoots develop leaves, and in their bosoms Pasinkova and overwintering buds. At the lower nodes of shoots produced inflorescences located at the above — tendrils (modified inflorescences), through which the plant clings to support: in the forest — the trees, the plantations — a trellis (artificially created support). Leaves entire or 3 — or 5-lobed. Phyllotaxy alternate. The flowers are small, green, gathered in panicles, wild grape species are functionally female, male, of cultivars — bisexual or functionally female (need cross-pollination). Berries collected seedheads — clusters (brush), which differ in shape, size, density, adding them berries, the degree of branching.
Areas of cultivation. Industrial crop of grapes developed between 34-52 with. sh. and 20-40 w. sh. In Russia, industrial viticulture developed mainly in the south, Moldova, southern Ukraine, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
There are about four thousand varieties of grape culture, of which about two thousand cultivated in Russia. Most of them are unstable against phylloxera and fungal diseases. Original form, from which many of the cultural grapes, served as European wild grape, which in Russia is widespread in the valleys of rivers. Dnieper and Dniester, in the forest of the Crimea, the Northern Caucasus, Transcaucasia, gorges Kopetdag.Michurin used Amur grape (V. amurensis), or grapes Ussuri, to remove frost-resistant varieties and to promote a culture of grapes in the more northern areas. In Russia, zoned about 250 varieties, which are divided into 3 groups: wine, going to make wines, cognac, champagne (Rkatsiteli, Riesling, Aleatico, Aliquot, Bayan Shirey, Cabernet Sauvignon, White Muscat, etc.) table that are used in fresh (Chasselas, Husain white Karaburnu, Pearl Saba Kirovabad table, Nimrang etc.); kishmishno-raisin used for drying (Kishmish white oval mask, Asker, Sultana black, Katta-Kurgan, etc.). By the time of ripening grapes are divided into very early (Pearl Saba, Madeleine Anzhevin, Khalili, white, etc.), early (Portugieser, Sultana black Muscat Hungarian, Early VIR), medium (Kirovabad table, Katta-Kurgan, Kishmish white oval) , late (Karaburnu, Muscat of Alexandria, Nimrang), very late (Ararat, Sabbath). In greenhouses grow grapes: Frankenthal, Foster, Dodrelyabi, Royal, Black Alicante, etc. The science of grape varieties and species called Ampelography.
In 100 grams of grapes contain:
• Water — 80.2 g
• Proteins — 0.62 g
• Fats — 0.21 g
• Carbohydrates — 16.83 g (including mono-and di-saccharides — 15 g)
• Dietary fiber (fiber) — 0.64 g
• Pectins — 0.67 g
• Organics acids (tartarics, citrics, oxalics, malics, etc.) — 0.81 g
• Ash — 0.53 g
• Vitamins A (retinol) — 0.178 mg
• Vitamins B1 (thiamine) — 0.04 mg
• Vitamins B2 (riboflavin) — 0.018 mg
• Niacin (Vitamins B3 or PP) — 0.32 mg
• Vitamins B5 (pantothenic acids) — 0.19 mg
• Vitamins B6 (pyridoxine) — 0.62 mg
• Folic acids (vitamins B9) — 4,7 mg
• Vitamins C (ascorbic acids) — 5,8 mg
• Biotins (Vitamin H) — 3,7 mg
• Vitamins K (phylloquinone) — 0.5-2.2 mg
• Vitamins P (flavonoids) — 45 mcg
• Potassium — 253 mg
• Calcium — 31 mg
• Magnesium — 19 mg
• Sodium — 28 mg
• Phosphorus — 22 mg
• Iron — 600 mg
• Iodine — 8 mg
• Cobalt — 2 mg
• Manganese — 93 mcg
• Copper — 82 mcg
• Molybdenum — 3,2 mg
• Fluoride — 12,8 mcg
• Zinc — 93 mg
In 100 g of grapes on average contains about 67 calories.
Useful properties of grapes
Since time immemorial, grapes and products derived from them, are used as a medicine man in the treatment of many diseases. Composition of grape contains more than 160 biologically active substances. Pulp and juice grapes are rich in vitamins, trace elements.
Grapes — healthy, delicious, dangerous ...
Grapes. Before planting, you must first correctly podobratsorta grapes best suited to the area.
The main requirements in the selection of varieties — the annual harvest ripening, fruit quality, good aging shoots and high yield. In areas where the period of ripening may rain, is of great importance to the stability of the fruit cracking. It is also desirable that the grapes had increased winter hardiness (it would not cover the vines for the winter) and immunity to diseases and pests.
The more the sort of fits the bill, the more successful their culture, sometimes fans put the later grades than they should, hoping that you can speed up the ripening various agricultural practices, but, except disappointment, nothing comes of it, as the effect of these techniques is low.
Spring — a hot time in the garden, in the garden, in the vineyard. As the sun warms the ground a little, and the night temperature stops dropping, growers can not wait to see his plantation, and there's something to correct, improve, clean. For example, if the vineyard is in the area of sheltered viticulture, to prevent condensation on the inside of the shelter to increase the number of vents, lifting the edge of a covering material. Tapestry also needs attention — it needs to inspect, refurbish, repair or reinstall. In fact, many growers do not know which of the existing types of tapestries to prefer, so please recommend some that would facilitate maintenance of a vineyard.
There are several types of trellises for grapes, but today, the two most common — Single scan vertical and inclined two-plane trellis. In commercial plantations and in the area of sheltered viticulture used mainly monoplanar wire trellis with legs of iron, concrete or asbestos cement pipes. Everyone knows that today, the metal — a godsend for thieves, so it's best to use asbestos cement pipes (diameter of 100 mm and a length of 4 m). First, to set the asbestos pipes need to purchase sand, gravel, cement, because it is not concreted, and by drilling a hole in the ground set at a depth of 1-1.5 m Above the installation location for the strength to cover up or to cover construction foam. An almost eternal tapestry up to 3 m, which no one steals.
Row spacing in this case is about 5 m, and grapes harbor land with a tractor. In his backyard on monoplanar trellis (with a length of 30 m range) I used a tunnel dry shelter — the arc of wire diameter 5-7 mm and covering material (plastic film), under which the bushes do not suffer necrosis and other fungal diseases. I think that the ground cover vine — a very time consuming process.
Everyone knows that for normal growth and abundant fruiting grape must as much sunlight. Planting grapes, must determine in advance what purpose pursue — to grow for your family, for sale, or just to practice, opening a new culture for themselves. And after that, decide how to shape the bushes on the site.
Advantages monoplanar tapestry: it is not expensive, easy to install, does not prevent the conduct mechanized operations, facilitates shelter vines for the winter. Its disadvantages are that the land in thickened, poorly illuminated by the sun, leaves little synthesize organic compounds. All this adversely affects the quality of the harvest, vines often affected by fungal diseases.
However monoplanar trellis can be optimized by getting rid of these shortcomings. To do this, I'm on a 4-sleeve bushes instead of the left kidney at 8.12 on fruit bearing link of about 16 — 18 buds. Since the beginning of the growing season of grapes all the buds pointing down, I blinded, leaving only the up and arranging them in rows, to avoid imposing one vine to another. In this case, the main thing — to achieve optimal illumination of the bush. Finally I got the right amount of the kidneys and increased timber, bush is not overloaded, well ventilated.
Trellis height depends on the growth winegrower, I install a trellis to grow with outstretched hand. To reduce the cost of the tapestry, you can use the so-called «doll» — larger pipes are installed in the soil, and in them — pipes of smaller diameter. This tapestry can be four or five or six wires, and the edges of its desirable «anchor» for stability. Wire checker in 50 and 40 cm above the ground. Between the wires leave at least 10 mm to avoid chafing vines. Row spacing should be such that the first number does not overlap with the second. Trellis offer from north to south.
Biplanar trellis is mainly used in the area neukryvnogo viticulture in the southern regions, home gardens. If you are growing grapes for sale, it is reasonable to set the two-plane trellis to increase the load of grape harvest. The disadvantages of this tapestry lies in the fact that, first, its installation costs quite a round sum, and secondly, due to the nature of its design is inconvenient harbor vineyard in the winter and use mechanized means to care for a vineyard and harvesting.
When using a two-plane trellis than the minuses, there are advantages — we can increase the load on the bush, separating at least four arms. As a result of increased fruiting, shoots evenly spaced and well illuminated by the sun, creating more favorable conditions for pollination accelerates ripening berries. Row spacing is 3.5-4 m, wire needed as much for monoplanar trellis. The only caveat — for grape trellis for the two-plane requires a large area of nutrition.
To facilitate shelter for the winter grape trellis I built with all the features of my vineyard. In the bottom of the trellis, between the posts, leave a distance 1.1 m, and the top — 1.45 pm Now I can walk in the tapestry with its length of 38 m, and did not bother me one piece cover vines covering material ( length of 42 m). From T-biplanar trellis I refused, because faced with the inconvenience when working in the area, and by the meter pipe is not economical. To save metal, the ends of the tubes I cook all kinds of waste and concreted them. Landing condensed as follows: among retreated from the extreme stands at 2 m, shrubs planted in pairs for every meter (between left 2.5 m) and close to one of the parties, and not in the middle, retreating 40-45 cm from the rack.
Now that you are familiar with one-and two-plane type of trellis, the positive and negative aspects of each of them and decide for yourself, which is more suited to your site, which is more convenient for you, it is easier to use and at same time effectively. It is important is not only to ease the care of the vineyard, but to ensure maximum productivity for each plant site. I hope my advice will help you make the right choice. Buying saplings, we always hope that they will grow up healthy and beautiful and will make us happy every fragrant flowers, lush leaves, ripe and delicious fruit. When choosing the site for planting a shrub or tree of the desired culture, every gardener appreciates it for some personal settings. According to national standards, gardeners, seedling should have a «fresh» look, as if he had just been dug up, a small number of flowers and an impressive, well-developed root system. Compliance with these standards provides sellers with buyers the illusion that they face a high quality product. And combined with the affordable price makes it a very attractive market seedlings commodity. However, buy seedlings with bare root still risky — do not know what will grow out of them, if not increase. In addition, this seedling of purchase must also bring home, keeping the root system, which can dry up the road. But what if you have to postpone the planting of seedlings? What to do when the weather suddenly intervened and ruined not only the mood, but also plans? It is best to buy from the beginning already packed sapling.
There are numerous cases where the purchase of seedlings unpackaged consumer faced with unscrupulous sellers offering poor quality seedlings infected by fungal and bacterial diseases, and as such, varietal identity which does not correspond to grade, declared on the label. Selling plants under the guise of cheap varieties of rare and expensive — the most popular way of cheating customers. Needless to say that about any of the material and moral compensation is not out of the question, because often it is impossible to find person who sold unpackaged seedlings, or there is no way to prove that they acquired it from him.
Different with companies engaged in the packaged product. It should be noted that such activities are undertaken by established companies operating in the market for years. They ensure that the boxes with seedlings are exactly the sort of plants that depicted on the packaging. If you purchased does not meet the seedling varieties, which wanted a buyer can claim damages from the seller. Each package contains a phone number manufacturer, where you can get the necessary consultation. Any company will always meet the client as a good reputation more than money. Thus, buying packaged seedling gardener gets not only the product, but also warranty and support from the vendor or manufacturer.
To ensure that you get quality planting material, observe the following rules:
1. Seedlings is better to buy in specialized shops — garden centers, shops specialized companies, research institutions (botanical gardens, fruit institutions).
2. Do not buy seedlings to natural markets, particularly in retail outlets located along the roads.
3. Before buying check the plants — they need to be healthy (not infected with diseases and pests), without mechanical damage.
4. On the package purchased seedlings should contain information about the brand and manufacturers.
5. Each seedling must be labeled with name of the species and varieties (forms) of plants.
6. Sellers planting should know about the features of farming culture, they offer for sale, and the buyer's request to talk about them.
Acquired in a packaging plant ensures almost 100% survival on the land. This figure confirms one of the experts of the Polish market of seedlings Tomas Kaczmarska: «Packed seedlings is a bit more expensive than bare root seedlings with, but they have some advantages, of which the most important — is minimizing transplant shock and high survival rate during landing.» Many readers may have noticed that we have not quite Europa. Where to get quality planting material in Ukraine and Russia? Someone tell me, or be able to give competent and detailed advice in selecting plants, will explain in what care they need? The market offers several large companies, experts are always able to help and offer a quality product. Ukrainian providers of packaged seed claim that their products can withstand quite a long transport and storage. For example, representatives of one of Vinnitsa talks about the benefits of packaged plants as follows: "Equally important is the time it can survive a transplant without the negative effects of purchase prior to boarding. Our packaged seedling has a distinct advantage here. Located in the substrate, it is protected from drying roots packaging does not give moisture to evaporate, the plant supplied with nutrients from the substrate. Therefore, the safety of such plants is very high. "
It should be noted that the health of plants affected by three major factors: their preparation prior to packaging, storage and transportation. Unwrapped seedlings, naturally, does not handle. And this is an important stage of the preparation plant for storage. Training includes pruning shoots sick and rotten, damaged branches, as well as handling the cut ends of branches with wax to prevent ingress of bacteria and evaporation of moisture through the slices. As seedlings dug in autumn, it is important that during the storage period (up to 6 months), they did not experience sudden changes in temperature and humidity. Ideally, seedlings should be kept in special rooms, fridges and obligatory control of temperature, humidity. For long term storage of seedlings (both packed and open) a certain amount of inevitable death of them. During transport always be damaged seedlings, however, if they are packed, this negative factor is almost completely eliminated. Tightly folded cardboard or plastic packaging must not be damaged plants in transit. Unwrapped seedlings usually transported in groups of 20-50 pieces that are bonded together. When parsing a group of seedlings often occur cracked shoots and damage the root system. As a result, seedlings with bare-root, most of them unfit for future life, will present an unpleasant surprise gardeners who buy them.
When buying packaged plants to look for is quality of the packaging. Seedlings packaged manufacturing process or by hand (artisanal). Manual packing — it's a lottery, the quality of seedlings in this package depends on the amount of substrate, the situation for workers, how tightly pressed this substrate. If it is poorly compacted around the root can not be the substrate and air lock, which leads to the death of the root, and hence the whole seedlings. Considering that the plants should be packed as much as possible, then the quality of «manual» package, however. Industrial packaging has a distinct advantage: the number of substrate normalized (average of 1-1,25 l), it is well compressed, which results in constant contact with the root system, away from air and moisture evaporation, packing out a compact and durable. Hence the conclusion — industrial packaging provides quality standards in the processing of each plant, and eliminates human error.
The average Ukrainian companies give 4 weeks warranty on plants that are in the package, wait for your flight, and 2 weeks after planting warranty — just in case you did not take root seedlings. Packaged plant can expect 4-6 weeks landing without compromising their development. In addition, seedling «out of the box» ready to land, because of the substrate, where it is stored, providing nutrients. In contrast, open-rooted seedlings to plant in the same day, when he unearthed. But in most cases, these seedlings spend a few days in the open air, without proper care, then plant health and survival are reduced.
To prepare for planting, acquired in a package, its root system free from the substrate and immersed in water for several hours (up to 6). For fast tissue repair seedlings very useful to add to the water rooting stimulator.
If purchased before the seedling planting will have some time to keep the roots out of the package do not need to extract. Packed seedlings stored in a cool place until until he shows favorable conditions for landing.
If you have purchased a quality packed sapling and planted it at the time, following all the rules, you can be sure that your plant is root and will soon go into growth. Remember that plants respond gratefully to care and good care. Love your garden and it will thank you a bountiful harvest.