Marijuana (cannabis, plan, drape), dependence on marijuana — Symptoms and Treatment
Hemp — is the common name for the plant Cannabis (Cannabis). People walking in the name of «grass» means the same plant, only applied to a few specific goals.
Haibolee famous product derived from hemp, a fiber («hemp»), cordage, ropes and fabrics from this fiber. It is widely used in navigation, as the only natural fabric, which does not deteriorate when in contact with sea water.
You can also use the seeds, pulp and resin cannabis. The pulp is used as fuel for the production of paper. Seeds are suitable as food for humans and animals. Oil from the seeds can be used as vegetable oil — in food and as a base for paints and varnishes. In the resin contains alkaloids used in medicine.
Above all, hemp contains derivatives «THC» (THC), the psychoactive effects of which is related to their ability to bind to receptors on the relatively recently discovered neurotransmitter — ethylamide arachidonic acid, and so unusual that makes the highlight of cannabis and its preparations in a separate section of substance .
There are several different types of cannabis — from cultivated for industrial applications to specific varieties with a high content of THC. The most common varieties — Cannabis Sativa («useful hemp» — Lat.), Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Ruderalis — just one is marijuana (dried leaves and flowers of cannabis) and hashish (the resin of the plant, ot hardened into blocks).
Cannabis has been used for the first time in medicine for five thousand years ago, when the Chinese botanist prescribed marijuana to treat malaria, beriberi, rheumatic pains and lack of concentration and a few women's diseases.
In the early 90's use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes quickly became very popular in the West, and then it was even possible to buy at the pharmacy for a simple recipe. Medical cannabis but the cost is expensive and the choice was limited, so most patients decided to grow their own cannabis.
Most suitable species depends on the pathology of the patient. Medical cannabis high in CBD is very effective when administered by inhalation to patients with multiple sclerosis, as it facilitates the pain and spasms.
Anti-inflammatory properties of the active substance CBD, contained in a medical cannabis when taking inhaled have even greater impact on other pathologies, which include response to infection.
Hemp is high in THC for the treatment of pathologies such as Tourette's syndrome.
For good reception cannabis inhalation, we recommend using a steam inhaler to prevent inhalation of hazardous substances.
Our feminized variety of medical cannabis are grown exclusively for users of medical marijuana. In principle, all types of cannabis can be used for medical purposes, but some varieties are more suitable due to its content of different active substances.
Medical cannabis helps to alleviate following pathologies:
Pain: cannabis is not so much anesthetic as relaxant, which helps the patient to cope with the pain. Pain relief can be dangerous. Instead, you need to find the cause.
Poor circulation: medical cannabis improves circulation and heat storage in the body.
Spasms: medical cannabis makes spasms, which, in turn, provides a good quality of sleep. It is a muscle spasm, which often occur when patient is lying in bed and do not let him sleep.
Chemotherapy: Medical cannabis often helps patients overcome the nausea after chemotherapy. After the cessation of nausea patients to eat better and more easily to take medication. Cannabis is usually stimulates appetite.
Relaxation: Cannabis has relaxing effect, helps the patient to forget about their illness. Thus, the patient becomes more buoyant, which, in turn, contributes to more fully communicate with other people.
Sexual Disorders: Cannabis has afrodiziakovymi properties, helps with premature ejaculation and improves erection.
Hormonal disorders: cannabis helps with disorders related to the menstrual cycle, such as premenstrual syndrome.
Cannabis — a drug or medication?
It seems that even in a conservative Europe, too, the ice began to move: the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the patients of the Federal Institute of medicines and parafarmatsii in Berlin are eligible to apply for the use of medications that contain THC. But officials took this decision too literally: you can ask, but to get a positive response to the petition — ever! Anyway, to this day, all the petitions were rejected.
However, in neighboring Switzerland on sale, there are similar drugs, so if you need anything do not cross the border in search of the desired product. In Russia today, the use of THC-containing products is not relevant, at least, the discussions on this subject is. In addition, the popular tradition to treat most illnesses strong drinks is unlikely to soon introduce known from ancient times to our experience severe soil.
Marijuana (cannabis, plan, drape), dependence on marijuana — Symptoms and Treatment
Cannabis has long been cultivated for the production of hemp twine, and for use as a drug and drug. Smoke generated during its combustion, contains many different substances, among which were able to identify 61 compounds belonging to cannabinoids. One of them — A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (A-9-THC) — plays nearly all the pharmacological properties of marijuana smoke.
According to opinion polls, marijuana — the most commonly used in the U.S. illegal substances. The peak of its use was at the end of the 1970s, when 60% of high school students have had experience with marijuana, and 11% — used it daily. By the mid 90's, these figures dropped to $ 40, and 2% respectively. It should be noted that the surveys could give high school students underestimate the prevalence of drug use, as the survey was not conducted among school dropouts. According to a recent study in the U.S. increased again marijuana use among eighth-grade student. Due to the fact that marijuana is perceived as the drug is less dangerous than other drugs, there has been a growth in its use, especially in the age group of 10 to 15 years. In addition, significantly increased the activity of drugs marijuana distributed through illegal channels is determined by a high concentration of THC.
In recent years, the brain was able to identify cannabinoid receptors. Subsequently, they were cloned. Although the physiological role of these receptors is not clear, it is established that they are well represented in the brain. Particularly high densities in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Distribution of cannabinoid receptors is similar in several species of mammals — this indicates that these receptors are fixed during evolution. Isolated endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors — anandimid, a derivative of arachidonic acid. Perhaps these scientific advances will help to better understand the mechanisms of marijuana abuse and dependence on it.
Clinical aspects of the marijuana
Pharmacological effect of A-9-THC is dependent on the dose, route of administration, duration and frequency of use, individual susceptibility and the circumstances of use. The toxic effect of marijuana shows changes in mood, perception, motivation. But the main effect, for which the majority of people use marijuana — a feeling of euphoria. People who use drugs, argue that the «high» produced by stimulants and opioids varies. The effect was dose-dependent, but in general a feeling of euphoria after smoking marijuana lasts about 2 hours during this time there are changes in cognitive functions, perception, reaction time, memory, ability to learn. Poor coordination and ability to follow moving objects persist for several hours after the regression of euphoria. These disorders can significantly complicate driving or in school.
Marijuana causes other complex phenomena, such as a sense of accelerated flow of thoughts and acute hunger. Sometimes report more vivid sexual feelings or inclinations to enlightenment against the «high» produced by marijuana. However there are no studies that have attempted to provide an objective assessment of these claims.
May arise unpleasant reactions, such panic attacks or even hallucinations and acute psychosis. Several surveys have shown that 50-60% of those who used marijuana at least once had similar worries. They tend to occur at higher doses and when administered orally, but not when smoking marijuana, because in the latter case it is possible to adjust the dose, depending on the resulting effect. Although there is no conclusive evidence that marijuana can cause schizophrenia syndrome, there are numerous clinical reports that it can cause a relapse in patients with a history of symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia in remission are particularly sensitive to the negative effects of marijuana on mental status.
One of the most controversial effects attributed to marijuana — the ability to cause «amotivatsionny syndrome.» This term — not an official diagnosis, it is used to indicate the status of young people who have moved away from any social activity, do not show any interest in school, work or other purposeful activity. When these symptoms occur in a person abusing marijuana, it is the latter is considered the cause of them. However, no data that would demonstrate a causal relationship between marijuana use and loss of motivation. No evidence that marijuana damages brain cells, or causes any persistent functional changes. Experimental data show that the impaired ability to navigate the maze persist for several weeks after the last dose. This corresponds to the clinical data, according to which, after the person is long consumed high doses of marijuana, refuse drugs, there is a gradual normalization of mental status.
Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking marijuana
EEG changes during sleep
Nausea, muscle cramps
The therapeutic effect of marijuana
There are reports of several beneficial properties of marijuana. Thus, it can reduce the nausea that occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer, has a muscle relaxant effect, anticonvulsant effect, reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma. Patients with AIDS, report that marijuana stimulates the appetite and helps prevent weight loss, often observed in this disease. A similar effect is observed in terminal cancer patients. However, payment for these desirable properties is a psychoactive effect, which may hinder normal activities. Thus, the question about the benefits of cannabis over traditional methods of treatment of these conditions remains open. Marinol (dronabinol) — a synthetic cannabinoid, which is taken orally to relieve nausea and weight loss. Proponents of smoked marijuana (remaining illegal) state that oral does not adequately titrate the dose. Therefore, dronabinol is not as effective as smoking the plant product. With the cloning of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligand discovery it is hoped that will be developed drugs that can have therapeutic effects of marijuana, but deprived of its psychoactive side effects.
Dependency syndrome cannabinoids. To the majority of the effects of marijuana in humans and laboratory animals develop tolerance. Tolerance can develop quickly — after taking a few doses, but just as quickly disappear. However, in laboratory animals tolerant to high doses of the drug can be stored for a long period after the termination of its receipt. Withdrawal symptoms in patients seeking treatment, are usually absent. In practice, relatively few individuals have ever required treatment for marijuana dependence. However, a person described withdrawal of marijuana. In the experimental situation, withdrawal symptoms may occur after regular oral administration of high doses of marijuana. In clinical practice, it is observed only in those who used marijuana daily, and then ceased its introduction. Compulsive or regular use of marijuana, apparently motivated not by fear of withdrawal symptoms, although this issue requires systematic study. In 1997, according to data provided by the program staff struggle with substance abuse, about 100,000 people were treated for marijuana dependence.
Treatment of marijuana dependence
Specific treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence on it is not developed. Abusers of marijuana, may suffer from depression and require concomitant treatment with antidepressants, but this issue requires individual solutions. Keep in mind that the expressed affective symptoms may arise against extinction effect of marijuana. Residual effect of a substance can persist for several weeks.
Marijuana (cannabis, hemp, cannabis)
More often than marijuana stuffed in a homemade cigarette, which on youth slang is called «herd.» It can also be brewed as a tea, added to food or smoking through a special hookah.
Cannabis today occupies a leading position among the most common drugs that cause addiction. According to statistics, about 16% applied to the rehabilitation centers are dependent on cannabis. National survey data confirmed that teenagers who use marijuana or hashish, behave violently, property damage and break the law in 5-7 times more often those who do not consume marijuana.
«Modern» marijuana has a stronger effect than the one that was ten years ago. New ways to grow, as well as selected seeds led to an even more powerful drug. The number of young smokers entering the hospital has increased several times.
Marijuana is addictive, and this in turn pushes the smoker to try a most affecting drugs. When it's addictive, fun dull. Therefore addict may want to go to the most powerful tools that let you get rid of the conditions that characterize the so-called «breaking.»
Marijuana is the impetus for the use of other narkosredstv. The fact is that those who use drugs, often by seeking to remove them from the unwanted emotional states or feelings. Marijuana only temporarily masks the problem, allowing to forget troubles. Drug addicts switch to harder drugs because she was so not «acting,» and there is a need to experience more intense feelings.
Short-term effects of marijuana use:
time distortion, auditory and visual perception;
relaxation of muscles;
redness of the eyes.
You may also see tachycardia (rapid heart rate), which is a recipe for a heart attack (his risk in the first hour of taking the drug increases five times.)
With long-term use may appear psychosis, and there may be more serious, health-related problems (damage to the heart and lungs, bronchitis appearance, whistling respiration, etc.). Marijuana weakens the body, «undermines» the immune system, so the addict often sick colds.