Biological features potato plant
Potatoes are propagated vegetatively — small tubers or pieces of tubers (for breeding purposes — seeds). Potato planted at a depth of 5 to 10 cm.
Germination kidney tubers in the soil begins at 5-8 ° C (optimum temperature for germination of potato 15-20 ° C). For photosynthesis, growth of stems, leaves and flowering — 16-22 ° C. Most intensively tubers are formed when the night air temperature 10-13 ° C. High temperature (night around 20 ° C and above) causes thermal degeneration. From seed tubers develop plants with sharply reduced productivity. Seedlings and young plants are damaged by frost in -2 ° C. Transpiration rate of potatoes on average 400-500.
Chemical composition of potato plant
In potato tubers contain proteins, carbohydrates (starch — 13.1 — 36.8%, cellulose, pectin, mono- and oligosaccharides — glucose, fructose, sucrose), vitamins and mineral salts. Essential vitamins is ascorbic acid (10 — 54 mg%). The daily requirement for vitamin C can be completely filled by the potato, if it is to consume 200 — 300 AD in the club found almost all the vitamin B complex (B1, B2, B6), folic acid, besides vitamin B5 (niacin) . All these additional nutritional factors are important physiological significance of the body as a necessary material for the construction of enzyme systems. In addition, the carotenoids found playing the role of pro-vitamin A, sterols, phospho, galactose and sterinosoderzhaschie lipids, organic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic). Mineral salts in the tubers predominate potassium salt (568 mg%) and phosphorus, and organic acids — citric, oxalic, malic. In the peel potatoes and all above-ground parts of the potato plant contain a toxic glycoalkaloid solanine. Especially his many sprouted tubers.