Artichoke (Artichoke) — is the name of the plant, the aster family. From the history of cultivation of vegetable artichoke can be counted more than 5,000 years, artichoke grown and eaten even ancient Egypt, Greece and even met Rome. Now artichoke grows almost on all continents except Antarctica, but in Australia, South America, artichoke spread, so that it is considered a weed.
Artichoke as a vegetable is more common in Italy, France, Spain, the USA (most of California). And in these countries collect and high yields of artichoke.
Artichoke valued unforgettable taste and dietary quality. Artichoke is interesting because it is collected and consumed at different stages of maturation. Young and even small fruits artichoke take in food in general form and medium in size and age are well suited for CANNING, or for marinating. That's ripe and large artichokes take in food is not completely cutting off the top, and bottom of the artichoke buds and removing the core. And the most recent and already revealed all the artichokes with the already darkened leaves almost all unfit to use. There are lots of recipes from raw artichokes, marinated or canned artichoke of fruit, you can prepare salads, boiled artichoke is eaten as a separate dish, or use as a garnish. Even artichokes can be added to the pizza, cakes, pasta, bread and various desserts.
The composition of artichoke per 100 grams (fresh artichokes) are:
• Water — 84 grams
• Protein — 3.21 grams
• Fat — 1.45 grams
• Carbohydrates — 4.93 g
• Dietary fiber (fiber) — 5.2 grams
• Ash — 1 gram.
Vitamins in the artichoke:
• Beta-Carotene — Vitamin A — 8 mg
• Thiamine — Vitamin B1 — 0.071 mg
• Riboflavin — Vitamin B2 — 0.066 mg
• Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP) — Niacin — 1.05 mg
• Pantothenic Acid — Vitamin B5 — 0.34 mg
• Pyridoxine — Vitamin B6 — 0.113 mg
• Vitamin B9 — Folic Acid — 68 mcg
• Ascorbic acid — vitamin C — 11.7 mg
• Tocopherol — Vitamin E is — 0.19 mg
• phylloquinone — Vitamin K — 14.8 mkgramm
• Vitamin B4 — Choline — 34.4 mg
Contained in artichoke macro:
• Potassium — 370 mg
• Calcium — 44 mg
• Magnesium — 60 mg
• Sodium — 94 mg
• Phosphorus — 90 mg
Trace elements contained in the artichokes:
• Iron — 1.28 mg
• Manganese — 256 mcg
• Copper — 231 mcg
• Selenium — 0.2 mg
• Zinc — 0.48 mg
In 100 grams of artichoke contains approximately 47 kkalory.
Useful properties of artichoke
For a long time people have found wide application of artichokes, but not only for culinary use, but also for medicine. When that Pliny the Elder wrote about the beneficial properties of artichoke, and in particular pointed to the diuretic effect. But in the Middle Ages, the number of therapeutic properties of artichoke increased — the doctors used the artichoke as a diuretic, antirheumatic and cholagogue. Here in the later period of time used, and artichokes to increase appetite, as well as anti-edema, treated diseases such as scurvy, jaundice, rheumatism, and some cardiovascular diseases, which are accompanied by edema.
Artichoke promotes the excretion of «negative» cholesterol, and various toxins, improves liver function in this case, normalizes the metabolism of the body, is useful in acidity, atherosclerosis, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases in humans. Decoction of the leaves, the juice of the artichoke is very useful in diseases of the biliary tract and liver.
Artichokes, possessing diuretic and choleretic actions prevent the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Doctors also recommend taking them to patients who are preparing or have undergone surgery of the liver or kidneys.
In recent years, the artichoke is used in the manufacture of many drugs, produced drugs to treat hepatitis, jaundice, atherosclerosis and gall-stone disease. In the future the market will go treatments for hives, allergies, various forms of eczema and psoriasis.
Have artichoke contraindications.
The use of artichoke is contraindicated in cases of gastritis with low acidity, hypotension, as well as an individual allergic to artichokes.
Vegetable — artichoke, which is taken in food, unopened in a basket, and in the future — a flower, which is already in the mature form will be similar, with a beautiful blooming thistle with purple or blue. Prickly artichoke — in the food consumed only the fleshy receptacle (bottom baskets, bottom), the Spanish artichoke — only the fleshy basal leaves with petioles. There are more than 138 species of artichoke, but the nutritional value have only 40. Now artichoke grows in Southern Europe, Central Europe, the USA (the most in California) and North Africa. A lot of artichokes are grown as a vegetable crop in France, Spain and Italy. Almost all the artichoke that come to the U.S. market, are grown in California, the town can be called Kastrovill artichoke capital of the world, but this title with great success could challenge of Alicante in Spain, or Brindisi in Italy.
Artichoke growing up.
For cultivation of the artichoke, from the beginning of autumn prepare the site and dug to a depth of about 35-40 cm and are making organic fertilizer based on the calculation of 12.9 kg/m2. For proper cultivation of artichokes in the spring for two weeks before the planting dig a 2 / h after a fall on the depth of digging, and is already making a complete fertilizer at the rate of 90-100 gramm/m2.
Seeding for the cultivation of the artichoke.
Sowing spend the spring as the soil begins to warm up. To make the most difficult, for example, loamy soil warmed as quickly as possible, then in the fall are making organic fertilizer and make ridges. For cultivation of the artichoke is also possible to start sowing in late autumn as well as carrots. But in spring the soil dug up a lot smaller than the fall, align and make a bed is not very deep pit, into which pour mold, and then decompose 2-3 artichoke seed. On top of the soil fell asleep for about 4-5 cm According to the scheme of sowing the seeds for the cultivation of artichoke 70 x 50 cm, but in the south about 140 x 90 cm.