In Latin name: Cynara.
In English Name: Artichoke
Belongs to the family: Asteraceae (Asteraceae) order Astrotsvetnyh (Asterales).
Used in the home of the artichoke: the leaves, buds, roots.
Botanical description: a long rod-wintering root, major pinnatisect leaves grayish-green color, hairy beneath. Leaves collected in kuvshinopodobnoyu rosette. The plant has a straight stem of 0.6 — 1.2 m in height. Spherical inflorescences of small tubular flowers, which are collected in small baskets.
Fruit of the artichoke: fruits — achenes large, many-flowered, thick, obovate, about 7.5 — 8 cm in diameter.
Habitat: warm, dry climate, in the wild lives in southern Europe and northern Africa. In the Mediterranean region artichoke grown for more than two millennia. At this point, it actively cultivates in Europe and in the States of South America.
Vitamins are a part of the artichoke:
- Tocopherol (vitamin E)
- phylloquinone (vitamin K)
- Folic acid
- Ascorbic acid
- B9 Micro and trace elements in the artichoke:
- The tannins in the artichoke:
Nutritional value per 100 g of artichoke:
- Fat 1.4 g
- 1.1 g of ash
- 5.3 g fiber
- 3.3 g protein
- 86 g water
- 5.2 g of carbohydrates
Energy value of the artichoke:
- 48 kcal per 100 g
The use of artichoke in cooking:
In France, Spain, Italy, artichokes, served in food still very young with unformed core. Then, when the artichokes are edible whole. But in England, most often use is a mature plant with thick stems removed, it is not used in the food.
For food, and for the treatment, it is best to use fresh young artichokes. Do not take the winter off, because they are able to retain its medicinal and nutritional properties, even in the refrigerator up to three days. Besides the taste varies considerably for the worse when compared with the young fruit. In cooking, most of all, use the leaves and fruit of the artichoke. The fruits of the artichoke can easily, thanks to its nutritional properties, partially replace meat and mushrooms. The vegetable has a flavor that is reminiscent of the taste of a walnut. Most use a variety of fruit buds of young in salads. Stuffed artichokes are more mature.
Uses mainly fresh artichokes, since they are stored for long, about a week. Its characteristic aroma gradually teryayut after cutting. More mature artichokes are used for stuffing and marinating.
In addition, the leaves of the artichoke ispolzuyutsya for preparation of different salads, as well as the manufacture of liqueurs. Artichoke tincture helps brings a lot of toxins from the human body. The same effect is available in additives which have artichoke. These supplements are sold over the counter.
In a warm, posushlivom climate, artichoke can grow in one and the same place up to 5 years. If artishokna plant casino seedlings, the seedlings will bloom the second or even third year, around March.
But nevertheless as perennial, growing artichoke difficult because this plant is very sensitive to frost, in addition, it requires careful shelter in the cold. As annual crops grown artichoke seedlings, seed conduct special treatment. Back in February — early March artichoke seeds soaked, and then germinated at a temperature not lower than 20-25 ° C. After 10-15 days they create cold conditions, the temperature should be at zero. Treated seeds were sown seedlings in small boxes. Planted in the ground when it"s warm ustoychevoe in 20-25 days. The soil for planting artichokes must have a high nutrient content. After the chief care of the plant is in constant heavy watering, hoeing and weeding. The fertilizer is held every two / three weeks before the end of July. Cleaning artichokes delayutsya around the end of August. Crop can be harvested until the first frost. Artichokes are collected at several stages of maturation. Very young, which is approximately the amount of an egg, can be consumed even entire raw. Rip baskets when the scales are located on top of the inflorescence, just start to open. But, hard, to open artichokes, leaves browned in which, quite unfit for consumption.
Keep need artichokes at a temperature of 0 °, but not more than one month because the beneficial properties disappear.
The use of artichoke
In the food industry and in medicine is very actively used inflorescence artichokes, leaves, receptacle, roots. They are harvested after their inflorescences. Artichokes in recent times, are increasingly being used in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of hepatitis, atherosclerosis, jaundice and gallstones.
Artichoke beneficial to improve appetite and digestion, lowering blood sugar levels, improve skin condition, the output from the body of excess fluid harmful, eliminating migraines.
Artichokes, to normalize metabolism and improve liver function. A decoction of the leaves of the artichoke is used in diseases of the biliary tract and liver. Also fruit plants excrete cholesterol and toxins. This vegetable is very useful in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and high acidity. Artichokes are cholagogue and diuretic properties. It is therefore often used for the prevention and treatment of kidney and liver diseases.
Artichoke, in particular, is contraindicated in people who are sick with hypertension, gastritis. And as for those who have a low acidity and individual intolerance of this plant.
The use of artichoke in any form is contraindicated for children who are under 12 years of age, through insufficient information about this vegetable. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. In small doses, allowed the spread of artichoke on the people that suffer from biliary obstruction and liver failure.