In Latin name : Béta
In English name : Beet
Belongs to the family : Amaranth (previously attributed to the family Chenopodiaceae )
Used in the home of the beet: roots , leaves
Botanical description : The root of almost all kinds of beets — rod , dereveneyuschy it entirely into the soil. In non-cultivated species of beet root is thin , and the plant itself is an annual. In cultivated species, biennial plant , succulent fleshy root vegetable , most — protrudes slightly above the soil . Cultural plants developed two years , respectively, in the first year of beet develops only the root, leaves on long stalks , radical , large, slightly heart-shaped at the base , the shape is a bit like an elongated egg , leaves wavy edge . In the second year of the leaf rosette grows long leafless stem, its height can be more than one and a half meters.
Stem erect , herbaceous , furrowed — faceted , silnovetvisty . The leaves on it are very small, oblong or even the next lancet . Bunches of small pale colors are formed in the axils of the upper leaves . Flowers beet create long ears, they are bisexual are composed of green — off white cup-shaped five-lobed perianth , which has five stamens, which are attached to the fleshy ring. Fleshy ring surrounds the ovary and pestle with odnognezdoy semi-inferior ovary , which consists of two stigmas . Cross-pollination is carried out by the bugs .
Propagation: vegetative , generative
Habitat: Almost all modern types of beets originate from the wild beet , which has grown in India and the Far East. Now it is found in all civilized continents.
The constituent elements of beets.
The composition of 100 g. Beet includes:
- Organic acids — 0.1gr
- Proteins — 1.5gr
- Mono — and disaccharides 8.7gr
- Fat — 0.1gr
- Ash — 1g
- Carbohydrates — 8.8gr
- Starch — 0.1gr
- Dietary fiber — 2.5gr
- Water — 86gr
- Beta- carotene — 0.01mg
- Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid) — 10mg
- Vitamin E ( tocopherol) — 0.1mg
- Vitamin B1 ( thiamine) — 0.02mg
- Vitamin A ( retinol ) — 2 mcg
- Vitamin PP ( niacin equivalent) — 0.4mg
- Vitamin B5 ( pantothenic acid) — 0.1mg
- Vitamin B9 ( folic acid) — 13 mg
- Vitamin B2 ( riboflavin) — 0.04mg
- Vitamin PP ( nicotinic acid) — 0.2 mg
- Sulfur — 7mg
- Calcium — 37mg
- Magnesium — 22mg
- Sodium — 46mg
- Chlorine — 43mg
- Phosphorus — 43mg
- Chlorine — 43mg
Energy value per 100g beetroot : about 42 kcal
The practical use of beet
Beets from time immemorial been widely used in folk medicine. Used as improving digestion and metabolism, restorative, remedy.
Useful and therapeutic properties beet caused by a huge amount of different trace elements ( iron, iodine , potassium, magnesium , calcium, etc.), bioflavonoids.
Beet excellent source of copper and phosphorus. Due to its composition, beet , can eliminate the toxins in the human body. Beets , which every day to eat , can prevent the occurrence of malignant tumors or slow their growth. It is also indicated for the prevention of oncological diseases. Ingestion beet is also important to create a hemoglobin which in turn prevents anemia , leukemia . Beetroot helps preserve youth, because folic acid, which is in the beet , contributes to the creation of new cells. Also, beets indispensable in diseases of the liver, it helps to strengthen capillary walls . Beet dilates blood vessels , which helps to relax . Also, thanks to the beet from the body stands out excess fluid , which contributes to the normal operation of the heart. They contribute , perspiration , release the excess fluid and toxins from organism that promotes proper operation of the heart. It will be useful as a prophylactic agent in atherosclerosis , hypertension, cardio — vascular diseases. Beetroot is rich in nitrogenous substances . Beetroot contains the essential amino acids (lysine , valine , isoleucine , leucine, lysine) . Also found in beets gamma- aminobutyric acid , which plays an important role in the metabolism of the brain. But we should notice that the beets are not rich in vitamins, therefore it can not provide all the necessary human vitamins.
Beetroot is widely used as an effective drug in many countries. For example , beet juice with honey ( 1:1) or cranberry juice (2:1) is a very effective remedy for hypertension and vascular spasm . The same result can be seen when using beets boiled. Beetroot is rich in antioxidants that are needed for each of the body , they also contribute to the suspension of cancer. Besides antioxidants, due to their properties , they help the poor conditions of the influence of the environment, cope with stress , as well as from exposure to hazardous substances on human cells .
Beets, boiled especially has many useful properties. Edinstvennim condition yavlyaetsya need to boil the beets in their skins, it allows you to « hold up» a lot of vitamins. Also, you can not digest the root vegetable . Cooked beets has laxative properties . That is why it is recommended for those who suffer from chronic zaporamy . It is also important that the beets boiled much more useful as crude , crude may cause more harm to the stomach , if good. Crude svkla razdrazheet gastric mucosa .
Beetroot is contraindicated those who have a weak stomach or acidity .
It is best used for the cultivation of beet soil on which were previously cucumbers , potatoes or cabbage . A separate section on the beet can not allocate as it is perfect as a sealant with other crops such as cucumber or potato.
Beet sowing is carried out in late autumn or spring. In the spring sowing beets on a flat surface or in the grooves . Depth of planting seed is 3 — 4 cm Also beets can be planted seedlings . Seedlings planted in the first decade of May.
Beets need to thin out the two times — the first — when the leaves appear only at a distance of approximately 3 — 4 cm second time — when the 4-5 leaf and root vegetable grow to 4-5 cm distance — 6 — 8 cm
You need to clean the beets before the frost . Beets gently break a shovel or a pitchfork . Root clear of the ground and cut them with a sharp knife . Root vegetables are stored in a cool place.
Known for a large number of varieties of beets, basically, it's custom-made varieties invented for commercial purposes.
Early-maturing varieties :
Gribovskaya flat — beets , early maturing variety , has a natural immunity to spring frosts . Root flattened , up to about 500 g of mass, the flesh is purple- red .
Detroit - early maturing variety , in fact , spheroidal root crop for the small size and weight (about 350g ) . Flesh maroon — a dark shade .
Purple ball — with good care has good yield. Root bowl-shaped , juicy flesh is bright red sweet .
Bordeaux 237 — this variety is very resistant to drought. However, under favorable conditions, the yields can reach about 8 kg per square meter garden. The pulp purple- red , pink , juicy , hard . Weight about 0.5 kg .
Don flat 367 — immune to high temperatures. Variety easily tolerates drought of summer . Root rounded, slightly flattened with a deep pink or red flesh .
Refrigerant- 19 — a very good yielder . Weight of the roots, up to 500 g, has a burgundy — red soft flesh . This beet is very juicy.
Cylinder — is also a mid-season crop , with proper care can be very high yielding . Root cylindrical shape , hence the name. Flesh maroon or dark red .
It is a biennial plant . Fodder beet roots are remarkable large size and weight . Fodder beet has the different shape and depth of the dive into the ground. Consequently, these criteria are separated mangel into four groups.
1. root vegetable has a conical shape , the root is very developed , four fifths of the entire length of the root crop is in the ground.
2 . root elongated oval surface acts only one third of the entire length .
3 . cylindrical root vegetable , thanks to a well-developed neck two thirds of root crops to be above the soil .
4 . Root circular or spherical shape , only half of it in the soil.
Sugar beets, different name — beetroot , it is a technical culture, in its many root crops to be sucrose , which is why it is the main raw material for sugar production .
Sugar beet — biennial plant is edible root , except sugar production is used for animal feed . In its first year the plant forms the only outlet of basal leaves and thickened fleshy root vegetable . The level of sucrose in a Roots from about 8 to 20 %. It all depends on the growing conditions . The amount of sucrose in the roots depends on the presence of warm, sunny days in August — October . Also, from the ground . Most black soil gives a good harvest .