In English the name of: Cucumber.
It belongs to the family: Pumpkin — Cucurbitaceae.
Used in the home of the cucumber: the fruit and leaves.
Botanical Description: stem creeping, rough ends mustache, he clings to their support, the stem is extended to 1-2 m leaf heart-shaped, five-blade. The fruits of cucumber — seeded, juicy, emerald-green blister. The structure of cucumber fruit — is defined as a melon. From a botanical point of view of cucumber fruits — berries are false. They may have different shapes and sizes tolko it depends on the variety. In cooking, cucumber belongs to the vegetable crops.
Habitat: The native cucumber — they are tropical and subtropical regions of India, the foothills of the Himalayas, where he is now growing in natural conditions for cucumbers. Cucumber has many varieties of cucumbers and cucumber varieties.
The chemical composition of cucumber: in the fruit of the cucumber 95-98% water, a very small amount of protein, fats and carbohydrates. In the remaining 3% is carotene, vitamin PP, vitamin C and B vitamins and trace elements. In the cucumber contains a large amount of potassium.
Cucumber — its useful properties and applications of cucumber.
Available in cucumber potassium has beneficial effects both on the heart and kidneys. The number of alkaline salts in the cucumber is second only to the black radish. Salt and neutralize all acidic compounds contained in many foods and are violating the metabolic processes, leading to premature aging of the organism, the deposition of stones in the liver and kidneys. Cucumbers are sometimes referred to as an orderly for our body. But this is not the whole value of the cucumbers.
Cucumbers — a source of iodine compounds, which are very easily absorbed by the body. Studies have shown that people who regularly consume fresh cucumbers, much less subject to disease of the thyroid gland and disorders of the vascular system.
In cucumber, a lot of fiber. Cellulose is almost absorbed by the human body, but it regulates the bowels, removes excess cholesterol from the body. Because of the excess cholesterol is developing multiple sclerosis, a disease of the liver and kidneys.
But salted or pickled cucumbers unfortunately do not have medicinal properties.
Cucumbers, the use of traditional medicine
Cucumbers are used in folk medicine for a time, sincetime of Hippocrates. On the healing properties of cucumber are mentioned in the Russian medical reference — herbals, as well as in an old XVII century medical manual «Cool vetrograd.» Broth from cucumbers folk healers recommended to drink instead of water, and fresh cucumber pulp used as an effective diuretic, choleretic and laxative. The infusion and decoction of autumn leaves (tops) in folk medicine recommended to take with bleeding from various sources. Outwardly they are used for burns, as well as cosmetics with acne, rashes and some skin diseases. Cucumber juice — an effective remedy for a prolonged cough, relieves the condition of patients with tuberculosis, calms the nervous system, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
Fresh cucumbers are included in cosmetic face masks that whiten the skin and make it more elastic. Oily skin beauticians recommend an alcohol wipe cucumber infusion.
The most common cucumbers are consumed fresh or in salads, they have salted and pickled. In addition to eating cucumbers are used as raw material in the cosmetic industry.
The composition of cucumber
100 g of cucumber contains:
• Water — 95 g
• Protein — 0.8 g
• Fat — 0.1 g
• Carbohydrates — 3.8 g (including mono-and disaccharides — 2.5 g)
• Dietary fiber (fiber) — 0.7 g
• Pectin — 0.4 g
• Organic acid — 0.1 g
• Ash — 0.5 g
Vitamins in cucumber:
• Vitamin A (beta carotene) — 0.06 mg
• Vitamin B1 (thiamine) — 0.031 mg
• Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) — 0.042 mg
• Niacin (vitamin B3 or vitamin PP) — 0.21 mg
• Folic acid (B9) — 4 mg
• Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) — 10mg
• Vitamin E (tocopherol) — 0.1 mg
Nutrients in cucumbers:
• Potassium — 140,2 mg
• Calcium — 25,3 mg
• Magnesium — 14 mg
• Sodium — 8 mg
• Phosphorus — 40 mg
Trace elements in cucumber:
• Iron — 0.6 mg
• Iodine — 3 mg
• Cobalt — 1,2 mg
• Manganese — 0.29 mg
• Copper — 100 mcg
• Molybdenum — 1 mg
• Fluoride — 18 mcg
• Zinc — 0.26 mg
100 g of cucumbers contains on average about 14 calories.
Useful properties of cucumber
Fresh cucumbers are useful for arthritis, gout, diseases of the liver, kidney, thyroid, and cardiovascular system. Cucumbers stimulate appetite and improve digestion, and in addition possess diuretic, choleretic and laxative effect.
Useful for the cucumbers and the gastrointestinal tract. Cucumbers increase the acidity of gastric juice, stimulates intestinal motor function, as contained in the cucumber enzymes improve digestion of animal proteins, as well as slow down the conversion of carbohydrates into fat, which is useful for people suffering from obesity and simply wish to lose weight. The fiber contained in the cucumbers, displays the body of «bad» cholesterol.
Compresses of cucumber helps with burns, and are used to combat acne and some skin diseases.
Beware of cucumber!
Nursing mothers should be cautious in adding to the diet of cucumbers, as a substance included in their composition may cause the child's rumbling, cramps and upset stomach.
Favorite many salted and pickled cucumbers are not as useful as fresh, and are not recommended:
• gastritis with high acidity, enteritis and acute colitis, and stomach ulcers
• For nephritis, kidney stones and kidney failure
• cholecystitis and dyskinesia bile ducts.
Cucumbers are grown seedling and nonseedlings method. Sowing the seeds of cucumber seedlings to produce about a month before landing on uchastok. Directly into open ground ogurtsovvysazhivayut seedlings when the soil is warm enough (approximately late May in Russia, in early May — in Europe). In the methods of planting nonseedlings swollen or germinated seeds in the soil ogurtsaproizvodyat a temperature in the up layer is not lower than 13-14 degrees. The depth of seeding cucumber — about 2 cm, the density — 6-8 plants per square meter.
AQUARIUS — mid UB zhayny grade. Dlinnopletisty, mustache toychiv to disease, the fruits of his beloshipnye, krupnobugorchatye, without bitterness. Application of the universal.
DEAN — middle-yielding. Dlinnopletisty, resistant to disease, beloshipny, krupnobu gorchat. Application of the universal.
FINE — precocious UB zhayny salad variety. From the appearance of mass fruiting shoots up to about 50 days. It features increased durability Neu GOVERNMENTAL in adverse weather conditions, susceptibility to IAS mildew, powdery mildew. Beloshipny, tuberculate; use enjoyed canning, self — lats and short-term salting.
COMPETITOR — mid, high — kourozhayny pcheloopylyaemy grade. Dlinnopletisty; sredneustoichiv to mildew and olive mottled — STI, resistant to powdery mildew; chernoshipny, krupnobugorchaty. Plo — Aw high flavor, suitable for — HN pickling and canning.
Nizhyn — mid, high yielding variety. Dlinnopletisty, susceptible to mildew and powdery mildew resistant to olive — kovoy spot, chernoshipny, krupnobugorchaty. The flesh is firm, crisp, flavorful. Has ho — roshimi taste. Especially prized as zasolochny grade.
NEROSIMY 40 — precocious yielding. Dlinnopletisty, susceptible to mildew and powdery mildew resistant to olive spots; beloshipny, coarsely tuberculate. It is used for canning and salads.
SPRING — middle-high-yielding pcheloopylyaemy flexible — Reed. The fruits are small, srednebugorchatye, chernoshipnye, fragrant with good taste and zasolochny — mi qualities. Suitable for canning.
LIBELLA — mid, uro — zhayny grade. Fruit krupnobugristy, beloshipny. Predominantly — but the salad destination. You can use — to use and for canning.
MUROMSKY-36 — Early, high yielding variety pcheloopylyaemy. Relatively resistant to time mennym — lows in air temperature. Duration of vskho Dov before fruiting 32 days. Suitable for pickling.
PIRENTA — high-yielding hybrid. Resistant to-toe olive — nistosti. Fruit tuberculate, beloshipny, salad destination, can be used for cannedtion.