In Latin name: Ipomoéa batátas
In English name: Sweet potato
Treat the family: Convolvulaceae
Used in everyday life of the sweet potato: the tubers, leaves, stems, seeds
Botanical description: herbaceous vine that has a long, about 1-5 m, creeping stems that take root at the nodes. The height of the bush sweet potato is equal to 15-18 cm lateral roots thicken considerably in the grounds. They form tubers that have white, yellow, orange, pink, cream, red or purple edible pulp. One such tuber weight is from about 250 g to three kg.
Sweet potato leaves: long petioles palmately lobed or heart-shaped.
The flowers are sweet potato: inflorescences are located in the axils of the leaves have a large funnel-shaped corolla, pink, pale lilac or white in color. Many varieties of sweet potato are not in bloom, in a natural area with a temperate climate are rare. Cross-pollination, mostly carried out by bees. Blooming in the temperate zone is observed very rarely.
The fruit of sweet potato: the seeds of which are black or brown, 3.4 — 4.6 mm in diameter, is an chetyrehsemyannuyu box.
Habitat: home sweet potatoes are Colombia and Peru. Now the plant is known only in a cultural way. Favorable areas for the cultivation of tropical and sub-tropical, and sometimes — in the warm temperate zone of the field. Is very common in India, China, Indonesia. In a prepared, savory sweet potato varieties, according to its taste a bit like potatoes frostbitten, from the second plant name — «sweet potato.» There are sweet varieties of sweet potato, they have a flavor that is similar to chestnut — Bananan — pumpkin mixture with a taste of nuts.
Yam tubers can be eaten in various forms: raw, boiled, stewed, baked. Mainly used for the preparation of side dishes, or as an additional ingredient. Sweet potato varieties used to make confections.
Chemical composition of yam per 100 g:
Nutritional value of sweet potato:
- Water 77.28 g
- Carbohydrates 17.12 g
- Dietary fiber 3 g
- Ash 0.99 g
- Fat 0.05 g
- Protein 0.91 g
- Total lipid (fat) 0.31 g
- Fiber 1.4 g
- Potassium, K — 192 mg
- Calcium, Ca 27 mg
- Zinc, Zn — 0,39 mg
- Iron, Fe — 0,36 mg
- Magnesium, Mg — 24 mg
- Phosphorus, P — 39 mg
- Sodium, Na — 2 mg
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) — 5.5 mg
- Riboflavin — 0.041 mg
- Folic acid — 20 mg
- Vitamin A, E 11 mg
- Thiamin — 0.044 mg
- Vitamin B-6 — 0.065 mg
- Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) — 0.14 mg
- Niacin — 0.513 mg
- Vitamin K (phylloquinone) — 3.5 mg
- Fatty acids, saturated — 0.064 g
- Fatty acids, monounsaturated — 0.023 g
- Fatty acids, polyunsaturated — 0.131 g
Caloric sweet potato:
- Аverage of 59.8 kcal / 100 g product.
Growing sweet potatoes
Sweet potatoes are very heat-loving, so the optimum temperature for it is approximately 25-30 ° C. In nature, sweet potato — a perennial plant, but in the temperate zone, with unit shipments growing this annual plant
Depending on the variety and growing conditions sweet potato, tuber aging from 2 to 9 months. Tubers were stored at a temperature of 12-17 ° C. In this case — the relative humidity should be around 85-90%. Under such conditions, storage last up to six months or more. If you want to grow sweet potatoes, you must do the following steps.
1. Getting cuttings.
We need to create a special seedlings ridge, where they will germinate a small part of last year's tubers. They can be made either, in field or garden or in a greenhouse. If you are more suitable field for a start, you need to be grown under cover. After 5 — 6 weeks will need to cut the long shoots. Their length is approximately equal to 20-30 centimeters. The landing of the sweet potato as the potato (ie tubers) is extremely inefficient, because the quality of new tubers will be much lower. Planting cuttings prevents the spread of various diseases that affect plants through tubers.
2. The landing of the cuttings
Soil cannot fertilize the plants would start by itself. Under the initial hour period (40-60 days) to maintain soil moisture.
The main period of development is from 90 to 150 days.
This, simple at first glance, the procedure requires additional knowledge. Once harvested, it is necessary to carry out the procedure of «treatment» — the tubers kept in special conditions, and then transferred to an ordinary storage space.
The use of sweet potato.
Sweet potato — this is a significant source of easily absorbed carbohydrates. The combination of vitamins and minerals gives the plant a variety of healing properties. The sweet potato has a calming effect on the entire intestine, it can be used for the prevention of ulcer disease and various gastrointestinal disorders — gastric tract. One hundred grams of sweet potato contains 4 daily doses of beta-carotene, which are necessary to maintain the adult immune system. Beta-carotene along with vitamin C stimulates the immune system components phages different T-helper lymphocytes. Beta-carotene is a good drug and prophylactic emphysema — the most common disease of smokers.
Numerous studies have confirmed the positive effect of sweet potato on the nervous system. Vitamins that are available in the yam, support the activity of cells and nerve fibers of the brain and muscle.
Damage to sweet potato
Through the presence of beta — carotene, sweet potatoes will be contraindicated in people whose work is connected with the production. Hazardous gases, dust and fumes can increase the risk for lung cancer. The sweet potato is also contraindicated in the presence of peptic ulcer disease. Because some of its components may irritate the lining of internal organs. Sweet potato can also be harmful by excessive eating during pregnancy (especially the last few months) and during lactation.