Title in Latin: Solánum lycopérsicum
Title in English: Tomato
Belongs to the family: the family Solanaceae
Used in everyday life of the tomato: fruit
Botanical description: well-developed root system , rod type . Plants has branched roots that quickly form and grow. May differ in diameter of about 1.5 meters and about one meter in depth. Tomato has erect stems, in which the species is not decumbent. Stem tall, branching , ranging in length from 30 cm to 2 meters. Pinnate leaves can be potato type. Inconspicuous, small, yellow variety of colors, neatly stacked in one brush , self-pollinating
The fruit of the tomato: multi-cavity , juicy berries. Fruits may be of various shapes ( round to cylindrical ) and mass ( from 50g to 1 kg or more). Color of tomato fruits , all shades of red, pink and yellow tomatoes also are white and dark red, almost black in color .
Habitat: Homeland tomatoes — South America . Tomatoes in Europe came about from the mid-16th century to the XIX — th has become very popular. In today's world, tomatoes are very common. Grown to almost every continent .
The constituent elements of tomatoes.
The composition of 100 grams of tomatoes include:
- Dietary fiber (or fiber) — 0.8g
- Pectin — 0.1 g
- Fat — 0.2 g
- Protein — 1.1g
- Ash — 0.6 g
- Water — 92 g
- Organic acids ( malic, tartaric, citric and oxalic ( Shcheveleva lowest percentage ) — 0.5g
- Carbohydrates — 5g
Macronutrients that make up the tomatoes :
- Sodium — 40 mg
- Magnesium — 20 mg
- Potassium — 300 mg
- Phosphorus — 24 mg
- Calcium — 14 mg
- Vitamins that make up the tomatoes :
- Vitamin B2 — 0.04 mg
- Vitamin A ( Beta Carotene ) — 1mg
- Niacin ( vitamin PP ) — 0.5 mg
- Vitamin E ( tocopherol) — 0.4 mg
- Vitamin B1 ( thiamine) — 0.06 mg
- Folic acid (vitamin B9) — 11mkg
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) — 25mg
Trace elements that make up the tomatoes :
- Copper — 0.1 mg
- Fluoride — 20 mg
- Iron — 0.9 mg
- Iodine — 2mkg
- Manganese — 140mkg
- Molybdenum — 7 ug
- Zinc — 0.2 mg
- Cobalt — 6 mcg
value of tomatoes.
- 100g Tomato contains about 23 calories.
Tomatoes — the most common in the world . In general they are used for cooking . They can be used as raw, and almost any treatment. And the fruits are not necessarily used in the food ripe , for example, use green tomatoes for canning , various sauces and grilling. Of ripe tomatoes make salads , sauces, juices, added to marinades , soups, pizza. Also , tomatoes, one of the favorite vegetables nutritionists, because , having a low -calorie , combine a lot of vitamins, macro and trace elements as well as minerals.Useful properties of tomato.
Tomatoes — rich in antioxidants that help in the treatment and prevention of many diseases of the cardiovascular system. Tomatoes , thanks to the presence of volatile production , have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial action. The red color of tomatoes stimulates the mucous glands , which raises the appetite. In addition, the tomato has a positive effect on the nervous system , serotonin, helps to relax the nerve ganglia , due to, the mood rises considerably . Tomato seeds are also very useful for the entire human body. It turns out , a jelly-like substance that surrounds them , contains rare-earth , the specific substance that promotes blood thinners. Simply put, the tomato seeds resist thrombosis. The fruit itself a 94 % water , regular use helps to facilitate the work of the bladder and kidneys. Also, thanks to its " watery " and a huge number of B vitamins, tomatoes rejuvenate the skin and improve the complexion , as they are able to smooth out fine wrinkles. Since tomatoes are very low in calories and contain chromium, they help prevent hunger and quickly saturate the person. Tomatoes are able , thanks to the pectin substances to normalize blood pressure and lower cholesterol. Application tomatoes in medicine.
Because tomatoes contain antiseptics their juice is used for the treatment of purulent wounds and ulcers.
Nutritionists recommend the use of a daily diet tomatoes all debilitated patients , pregnant women, as an additional source of vitamins , minerals and trace elements. Tomatoes need to be used as a preventive measure against vitamin deficiency , as well as for the treatment of humans, in which disturbed salt metabolism . Tomatoes have a beneficial effect on male potency .
Tomatoes do not form acid in the body , thereby increasing blood alkalinity, and remove toxins from the body . Tomatoes are used to cleanse the liver .
Tomatoes — a dangerous allergen , but this is the greatest harm that can give the body a person tomatoes. Also , it is not recommended to eat tomatoes patients with gout and kidney diseases , as oxalic acid . Which is available tomatoes may aggravate the disease .
Also , tomatoes contraindicated in patients with cholelithiasis , because the fetus is a strong choleretic . Pickled , canned, pickled tomatoes are contraindicated for people that suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system and the kidneys.Growing tomatoes
Planting tomatoes can produce in greenhouses or as a seedling in the winter , with the expectation of Bedding in one month. Thus during the landing should be frost, otherwise the plant dies . In this period , you will only need to see to it that the seedlings are not tortured weeds and small pests . As soon as the first pair of leaves , it is approximately 3-4 weeks after sowing, the seedlings should be transplanted into the larger box with a big layer of earth . Then, about a month later , when the plants begin to crowd each other much you can repot the plant in a well- irrigated , dry soil. Fresh tomato fertilizer can not stand . After planting, water the plants immediately if the nights are cool , it is not necessary to water after sunset , since it is even more cool earth.
We know a lot of varieties of tomatoes , mainly use the following classification :
By the time of ripening tomatoes — the early , medium , late
According to the type of growth of the bush — indetermirovannye ( tall ) and deterministic ( stunted )
By the method of use , for conservation , dining rooms, for the manufacture of juice.
The main varieties of tomatoes :
Tsifomandra — variety of tomato is almost universal use , and the most common . Bushes tomatoes are very high, about 1.7 -2m in length. The fruit is slightly elongated, the color red , the average ribbing . Mass of the tomato adds about 0.3 kg . Tomatoes are sweet and fleshy suitable for salads and for making sokov.plodonosyat from July to September. Yields of the class becoming 6/7kg from the bush.
Persimmon — the name of this variety received from the external similarity with persimmons . Bush height of about 1.2-1.5 m Fruit color — bright — orange. The fruits are fleshy , sweet . Mass of one of 150 to 200 grams Yield per plant about 4-5 kg . Fruiting from July to September.
Crimson Light — name from the fact that the form of this variety recalls the lamp and color — crimson tsveta.Sort late-maturing , fruit from late July until the first frost . Tall plant from two to two and a half meters in length. Grade suitable for pickling .
Giant yellow — the name of the color , this variety of tomato belongs to the srednerosloe bush is approximately 1 — 1.2 height . Fruit weight of about 0.2 kg of becoming . Fruitfulness of 4-6 kg per bush with half of July until the first decade of September .
Du- Kara — variety of tomato is popular all over the world. Tuft three to three and a half meters. Color of fruit, yellow, bright — red , black. Oval shape of the fruit , the weight of 70 — 90g . Yields 8 kg per plant from July to the first frost .
Tiger — Middle- grade , for canning. Bush height reaches about 2.5 m , color crimson red with yellow stripes . Weight approx '60 Yields 6 — 7kg on the bush . Fruiting from July until the first frost.
Pertsevidnye — Medium early tomatoes . The fruits are fleshy pertsevydnuyu form of red color and sweet in taste . Bush height of 1.5 meters . Fruit weight about 80g . Yields about 6
kg per hive .
Novikov giant — a very large tomatoes , weight per fruit may be approximately 1 kg . Yield is 10 kg per hive . The fruits are large, slightly flattened, pink , they are mainly used in salads .
Alpinog — most sweet variety of tomato . The fruit raspberry okraasa , with small specks and quite noticeable stripes ploskookrugloy shape, weighing about 400 g Tomatoes salad type. Yields 5/6 kg per hive . Bush about five feet tall. Fruitfulness from late July to late August.
Golden drop — sort of medium and tall . The fruit bright — yellow color, teardrop-shaped , weighing 60 g, with a very dense, meaty flesh. Bush height of 1.8 to 2.2 mSalute or Fireworks — undersized (60 — 80cm ) , ornamental variety of tomatoes. The fruit is very sweet , weighing 15 to 20 g, bright — yellow color.
Long — keeper — highest first grade, but can be stored for a long time at home. The bushes about one to one and a half meters tall . Fruits — spherical, weighing about 100 grams, yellow — orange. But the flesh — bright — red . Yields about 6 kg per hive .
Carrot — early maturing variety , tall shrub 80-90 cm name from the fact that the leaves of tomatoes look like carrot tops. The fruit of the orange color, weighing about 90/120 g , the shape — flat-round . Fruiting from the middle of July to the end of August.
Beef heart ( pink ) — Middle- Class . The fruit of a pink color , the name because of the shape resembles a tomato heart. Fruit weight about 350-500 g Yield about 10 kg .
Black Prince — middle- grade . Shrub height of 1.8 to two meters. Fruits are black — red color , sweet, resistant to pests and diseases. Yields about 8 kg .
Iris — early maturing variety . Bush height of about 1.2 meters fetus weighing 50 — '60 Yields about 4/5kg .
Marmande -Dutch variety of tomato . Fruits — flat-round , weighing about 170 grams , quite firm to the touch , but the fleshy, actually do not crack . Bush height of about 140 cm 7 kg yield per plant .
Cherry tomatoes — like cherry tomatoes from their name . Bush about 70cm . Fruit weight was 10 -30 are used to prepare various salads and for pickling . The fruits are very tasty. Can be grown as a houseplant .