Description of tomato
Tomato — the name of the plant and the fruit of the same name. The name «tomato» in Italian means — the golden apple, and the word tomato comes from the Aztec "Matla '. Tomato is the birthplace of South and Central America, where you can still meet a wild form of this culture. Along with potatoes, corn, tomatoes and other plants were brought from Europe by the Spanish conquerors. For a long time tomatoes were grown as an ornamental plant, and its fruits were considered inedible and even poisonous. And now tomatoes are considered to be one of the most popular crops in most countries.
Tomatoes are very diverse in their physical characteristics. Depending on the type of tomatoes in a different color skin and pulp (from pale pink to bright red, from light yellow to rich yellow), and differ in weight (weight of the fruit ranges from 30 to 700-800 g), a form of (spherical, cylindrical or flattened) aroma and flavor characteristics.
The abundance of recipes for tomato (several hundred) strikes even the most sophisticated imagination. This «berry» is used in food as a standalone product — fresh, pickled, salted, dried, and as a component of many complex dishes.
The composition of tomato
100 g of tomato contains:
• Water — 92 g
• Protein — 1.12 g
• Fat — 0.245 g
• Carbohydrates — 5 grams (including mono-and disaccharides — 3.5 g)
• Dietary fiber (fiber) — 0.8 g
• Pectin — 0.3 g
• Organic acids (citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic) — 0.5 g
• Ash — 0.67 g
Vitamins in tomatoes:
• Vitamin A (beta carotene) — 1 mg
• Vitamins B1 (thiamine) — 0.06 mg
• Vitamins B2 (riboflavin) — 0.04 mg
• Niacin (vitamins B3 or vitamins PP) — 0.5 mg
• Folic acid (vitamins B9) — 11,8 mcg
• Vitamins C (ascorbic acid) — 25mg
• Vitamin E (tocopherol) — 0.4 mg
Nutrients in tomatoes:
• Potassium — 300 mg
• Calcium — 14 mg
• Magnesium — 20 mg
• Sodium — 40 mg
• Phosphorus — 24 mg
Trace elements in tomatoes:
• Iron — 0.9 mg
• Iodine — 2 mg
• Cobalt — 6 mg
• Manganese — 140 mcg
• Copper — 0.1 mg
• Molybdenum — 7 mg
• Fluoride — 20 mcg
• Zinc — 0.2 mg
100g tomato contains on average about 23 calories.
Useful properties of tomatoes
Fresh tomatoes and tomato juice is useful in a general loss of strength, memory impairment, anemia, hypertension, fatigue and gastritis with low acidity. Tomatoes normalize metabolism, activates brain activity, and normalize the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, improve liver, kidney and gonads, and help save the sight in his old age.
Tomato juice reduces the risk of prostate, certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and are part of the tomato pectin helps reduce «bad» cholesterol in the blood.
Besides tomatoes, stimulate appetite, improve the body adapt to the cold, have diuretic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiscorbutic and laxative action, and are also used in diets for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Due to the incoming of the tomatoes substance 5-hydro-ksitriptamina reminiscent of influence of the hormone serotonin, we are experiencing stress and easier to relax.
Beware of tomatoes!
Tomatoes are contraindicated in allergies, gallstones, and the people in old age, their use in large quantities is fraught with the formation of kidney stones. Also, some people can cause cramping tomato gall bladder.
British experts in the field dietorlogii named their list of the most useful products. The leading positions — in tomato
The top ten most useful fruits and vegetables first place — a tomato. Studies in recent years, numerous studies show that the tomato is maintained in a healthy state of the cardiovascular system, and are also able to prevent the development of some forms of cancer.
American scientists from the Harvard School analyzed data from 47,000 men for six years. One group ate tomatoes every day, or any dish with tomatoes, and the other — did not use tomatoes at all. As a result, it was found that tomato lovers risk of prostate cancer has decreased by 21-34%.
Italian scientists have studied the lifestyle and diet of 2,700 patients with cancer of digestive tract, and compared with the life and diet of healthy people 2900, Eat tomatoes. The study found that supporters of tomato diet are at risk of bowel cancer by 30 — 40% (depending on the location of the tumor) than those who eat tomatoes on a case by case basis.
Tomatoes contain lycopene, a powerful antioxidant and its antioxidant properties are aimed at combating highly active oxygen and free radicals — chemicals that destroy the blood vessels and nerve cells.
Lycopene is soluble in fat, and fat is absorbed in the intestines of the best nutrients.
As the researchers note, the benefits of tomatoes will, if they are eaten with vegetable oil or cheese.
Storehouse of vitamins. Tomato medicinal vegetable.
Since ancient times, natural foods consumed by people, not only for its intended purpose — to eat, but also for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. It's no secret that the best such «medicine» (as before, and now) — it's vegetables. Tomato is the most striking example of a «medicinal» vegetable.
Tomatoes contain a huge amount of nutrients, it is offhand and sucrose, and fructose, and mineral salts, and organic acids. In addition to these components in tomatoes contains proteins, carotene, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. As far as vitamins, the tomatoes available in almost all the Group 'B' — B1, B2, B3, B6 and B9, vitamin PP and E, and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). By the way, one hundred grams of tomato contains a quarter of the daily human need for ascorbic acid, so that being said, with a pound of tomatoes eaten in a day — and a full order!
Tomatoes also are an excellent antioxidant, and all because they contain lycopene (the pigment of organic origin). For over a decade ago, published medical evidence that lycopene prevents the occurrence of genital cancers in women, lung cancer, cancer of the stomach and digestive system. In addition to tomatoes as onkoprotektorov action is necessary to mention that they should be sure to eat and when such violations and diseases as avitaminosis, anemia, heart problems, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract.
If on the shelves of a variety of vegetables, it is best to choose not to buy the red and yellow varieties of tomatoes. U.S. scientists one of the universities in Ohio, experiments were conducted, which showed better digestibility in the human body, yellow tomato lycopene in comparison with the red lycopene of their «brothers.» Lycopene in tomatoes is accumulated in the process of maturation and that it causes a nice bright color of tomatoes (and yellow, and red, etc.), but the «green» tomato lycopene does not contain all. Lycopene, respectively, rich and ripe tomato processing products — natural tomato juice, tomato ketchup, a Georgian sauce «sattsibeli» and some others
Now let's talk about how not to «lohanutsya» and the right to buy a rosy tomato-Signori, if we do not grow their own right in our hands, in his private house on the green beds. Well-ripened tomatoes contain far less nitrates than other vegetables (both mature and non mature). When buying tomatoes at the markets or in shops should pay attention to the leaves at the base of the cup: they should be dark green and curled in a «snail». Shrunken, withered, or of unknown colored leaves just suggest to you that fresh tomatoes. Very bad if the cup with the leaves and the «tail» at the «noblemen» did not occur because Tomatoes are not suitable for more or less long-term storage.
When buying tomatoes should not «throw» at them presentable appearance, for example, too much size and unnaturally shiny side, it's a sign that most likely, they were sprayed with protective chemicals and / or have suffered a thin layer of wax, to maintain artificially «freshness» of the goods at the best possible realization of a long time. It is also worth noting that, paradoxically sounds to the ear ordinary man in the big-largest concentration of tomato juice and the contents of all nutrients is much lower than in the middle and lower middle-sized tomatoes.
Tomatoes — One of the most common ingredients in the kitchen of the world. Quite often, prior to use in cooking tomatoes for them to want to take a thin peel, remove seeds, or just cut. We will tell you how to correctly perform all of these, in principle, uncomplicated operation.
How to peel a tomato
To remove the skin from the tomatoes, a must if you add them to soups, stews or sauces cook with them. This should be done for two reasons. First, the tomato skin is poorly absorbed by the body (this is especially important to remember when cooking for children and the elderly), and secondly, the heat treatment, the skin separates from the tomatoes and rolls up in the finished dish, it looks unappetizing and just spoil it appearance.
A small knife at the base of the tomato skin to make a shallow incision crossed so as not to cut through the flesh of the tomato itself.
Put the prepared tomatoes in a large saucepan. Pour boiling water over the tomatoes so that the water covered them completely. Leave on for 10-20 seconds.
When the little corners of skin formed by the cuts will begin to wrap, drain ...
... And immediately immerse the tomatoes under cold running water.
Tomato to Europe came from Central America. Introduced in the X VI. (Formerly of potatoes, corn and tobacco). In Germany it grew like flowers — on a window sill, in France — around the pavilions, in England and Russia, it was an exotic hothouse flower. The first description of the new plants in Europe: an Italian botanist, Mattioli left «muffled, like a roundish apple, split, like a melon, a green color at first, then. When it is mature, some — gold, the other — the red.»
History of Tomato
In the botanical German dictionary, published in 1811 says: «While the tomatoes are poisonous plants in Portugal and Bohemia sauces made from them are characterized by an extremely pleasant sour taste.» Meet with tomatoes Russia owes Agronomist Andrew Timofeevich Bolotov. In the village of Tula Dvoreninovo province, he bred tomatoes. In 1774, a rumor of it came to Catherine II, and she bought for herself Kiyasovskuyu parish, near Moscow, in an order made by scientists to their executives.
Currently, as many as two thousand varieties of tomatoes. Were not poisonous fruits, and stems and they are considered the best vegetable poison to many pests of vegetable and garden plants.
In the first tomatoes were yellow fruit. In the sun it shone with gold: in Italian «tomato» — none other than the «golden apple» («help» — the apple, «expensive» — gold).
Tomato contains ...
Tomato contains sugar (glucose), malic and citric acids, nitrogenous substances, vitamin C, provitamin A, B1, B2, B3, P, PP, K, E. The superb taste and vitamin value of tomatoes gained recognition, having gone through all the «secrets» who accompanied him for centuries then one, then in another country. As tomatoes contain phosphorus, potassium, calcium, copper, zinc, cobalt, iodine, magnesium, iron, carotene, in tomatoes which contain almost 8 times lower than in carrots. However, as the source of this vitamin use them quite successfully. In winter and spring can be replaced by canned tomatoes, tomato sauce, which is partially preserved this vitamin. It should be added that the carotene content is directly related to the maturity of the tomatoes. It is no accident in the industrial processing of tomatoes distinguish several degrees of ripeness: green, milk, brown, pink, red. In red tomatoes greatest amount of carotene.
In tomatoes pretty much potassium, which plays an important role in maintaining the normal function of the cardiovascular system. Low calorie Tomato allows you to include them in the diet of those who have excess body weight.
Tomatoes are known for excellent flavor. They are very helpful. In tomatoes there carotene — a precursor of vitamin A, ascorbic acid, B vitamins from minerals — potassium, phosphorus, iron, and there are organic acids, dietary fiber.
A useful property of their tomatoes are high alkalizing ability. And in this respect they are the most attractive of the vegetables as well as salts of organic acids within them, in the process of assimilation in the body leaves a substantial margin of alkaline substances. As you know, these substances counteract the disruption of existing in the body acid-base disorders: they connect the excess acids produced during metabolism, and thus prevent premature aging.
Tomatoes are useful ...
Useful tomatoes and a low content of purines, which in the diet of people of mature-aged and elderly should be limited, as in gout and other diseases associated with metabolic disorders of uric acid, are completely excluded. Many of purines include meat, fish and other animal products. There is also a vegetable foods rich in purines, — beans, peas, spinach, lettuce, cauliflower. Tomatoes can be recommended to almost everyone: adults and children, sick and healthy.
At present, nutritionists consider that tomatoes can be recommended for almost everyone. They are especially useful in diseases of the cardiovascular system. Low calorie Tomato allows you to include them in the diet of those who are overweight. Tomatoes should not be excluded from the diet of people suffering from diseases of the joints and kidneys, as these vegetables purines and oxalic acid is found in small quantities.
Tomatoes, in contrast to many vegetables, have a soft tissue, which affects the livelihoods of blagopriyatno beneficial intestinal microflora, reduces putrefaction in the intestine, excretion of excess cholesterol and at the same time has a beneficial effect on digestion ppotsessy.
But that's not all. Tomatoes enhance specific immunity to the causative agent of pneumonia — pneumococci, enteric infections — Salmonella, dysentery. Volatile tomato exhibit antifungal activity, delaying the development of dangerous for a man of microscopic fungi.
Tomatoes stimulate peristalsis, the work of biliary tract, have excellent diuretic, useful in diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity. All the above properties and has the juice from the tomatoes. Drink it should be 30 minutes after the meal. It is recommended to combine it with other vegetable juices (carrot, beet, potatoes), which enhances the therapeutic effect of each juice, taken separately.
Maximum use should be extended «tomato» period to get rid of heavy menstrual bleeding, and bleeding during menopause. Passes anemia, the hemoglobin is quickly restored, leaving weakness, dizziness, weakness condition.
Keep in mind that tomatoes are incompatible with eggs, meat and fish.
But to the nuts, all sorts of cabbage, radish, onions, squash, eggplant, squash and tomatoes, sweet peppers have fondness. Do not forget the tomatoes, stuffed with vegetables, cheese, cottage cheese and herbs — all of it is surprisingly tasty.
Recipes with tomatoes
The recipe of tomatoes, stuffed courgettes
Wash tomatoes and cut off the tip of the stalk. A teaspoon, remove the pulp (you can use it for stuffing).
Stuffing: peel and cut zucchini, can mince. Lightly fry in vegetable oil, salt, pepper, mixed with fried onions. Tomatoes filled with minced meat. Bake in oven for 15-20 minutes.
Recipe for sweet adzhika
2.5 kg of tomatoes, 0.5 kg of apples «antonovka», 0.5 kg of sweet peppers, onions 0.5 kg, 0.25 kg of sugar, 0.5 kg of carrots, 2 tablespoons of salt, 0.2 liters of vegetable oil.
All vegetables mince and boil over medium heat for 20 minutes. Add 0.25 cups of vinegar, 100 grams of garlic, 1-2 pods hot pepper, pre-twisted through a meat grinder. Boil for 10 minutes.
Recipe for Tulips of tomatoes
Tomatoes, cheese, milk, onions, peppers, greens (the number of products depends on the number of servings), salt to taste.
Several flat, identical in size tomatoes cut crosswise. Take out the middle and stuff the cheese, whipped with milk and tomato pulp to the creamy texture and seasoned with diced onions, bell peppers, salt and herbs. Apply for lettuce.
Recipe for green tomato jam
Wash small green tomatoes in cold water. For one night to put them in cool salted water. Rinse thoroughly. Pour a little water and let them just boil. Transfer to a sieve, rinse with cold water (so that the tomatoes have not lost their beautiful green color). For every kilogram of fruit is a thick syrup is prepared from one kilogram of sugar, vanilla, or juice and zest of two lemons. They are boiled in syrup on a light heat until transparent, remove the scum carefully. Store, as usual jam.
Recipe for tomato in apple juice
In well-washed banks lay the tomatoes, after puncturing them in place attachment peduncle wooden skewer. No need to add any spices, just fill them with apple juice. Double-Fill jars with the tomatoes with boiling water, soaking each time for 5-10 minutes. And the third — pour apple juice with salt, brought to a boil. One liter of juice — one tablespoon of salt in the top three-liter jar. If you want to add the juice, use the boiling sap, and not salty. Close the lid, turn the jars and allow to cool.
Secrets of growing tomatoes
This method of planting tomatoes suitable for large tracts of land.
Now for the second method. It is easier and more accessible to any gardener. I suggest some of the stepchildren in the tomato plants do not remove, and use it to make a stronger root system. How? It's very simple. The first side shoots — do not remove suckers and give them grow back true. They tore the leaves bend down to the ground and cover soil layer at 10-12 cm (Fig. 2). Prikopat stepchildren are fast in growth. A month later they are difficult to distinguish from the main plant and height, and number of fruits ripen. Characteristically, abundant fruiting begins in the immediate vicinity of the earth.
Left — rooted plants with stepchildren. Right — the usual method of planting.
— Accompanying the question. Many readers are asking: Is it possible to use this method if the tomato seedlings are already planted in the ground by the usual method?
— Not being able to get home overgrown seedlings that she had a thick stem, I have it planted in a vertical way into the soil is not heated greenhouses. For some time, give it grow back, stronger, and then, almost at the stage of early fruiting, transplanted in its own method of lying. Note tomato plants are not only not afraid of frequent transfers, but on the contrary, in my opinion, love them. After each transplant the plants root better still, very quickly gaining momentum, grow well and abundantly bear fruit.
— Our readers are interested in your justification of the method.
— Tomatoes — is, of course, bread, potatoes and not myaco. But they need a man. Their love and fresh and canned form, and therefore under their cultivation of large areas drained. If, however, dramatically increase the yield of tomatoes, you can have the required amount of this vegetable, and at the same time free up large areas for cultivation of other crops.
To implement the new method does not require any additional material costs, you only need to understand the nature of the tomato plants. Unfortunately, the plants can not talk. If the tomatoes began to speak, he would have told that by intervening in the life of the plant, not all people before the end of thought. With the help of ropes, stakes, he forced the plant to grow vertically, so that it occupied a smaller area. Well, that's good. But if a cucumber or grapes can grow well and abundantly fertile, being planted vertically, holding the plant itself and its numerous benefits due to the fact that they have for this purpose has provided the very wildlife so-called «whiskers» that tomato plants such «whiskers» has not, and therefore, for the vertical growth is not appropriate. Plant tomatoes all the time tends to earth to live a normal life of a specific nature to him, but he does not allow you to make a rope, on which the plant is suspended. It does not die, grow and even fruit, taking care of their offspring.
— But in this as you consider an abnormal condition for tomato gardeners get pretty good results.
— Yes, this is so, but the proposed methods allow me to harvest many times larger.
How to increase frost resistance in tomato
Very unkind weather and in Transbaikalia, freezing can happen here in late June and again make itself felt in August. But even here the skill and resourcefulness to help. Thus, chitinets VY Vtorushin each tomato stem grows to the two root systems. To do this, two pots of seedlings places nearby. In the upper third of the stems carefully cuts the skin and connects the braid plants (Fig. 3). It turns like a vaccine one stem to another. Before transplanting seedlings braid eliminates the weaker cuts the stem above the inoculation. It turns out, «one plant two roots.» Plants on the ridge of the plants after the return pass by freezing. Bush does not suffer and grow evenly. Planting holes to sleep gradually to 5 cm per week. In the period of intensive growth and fruiting of Vladimir Yakovlevich makes dressing of nitrogen and potash fertilizer in the last pours a glass of wood ash under every bush. All the dressing combine the sun-heated irrigation water. Pour it under the root, taking care not to wet the plant itself. When the plants are sufficiently okuchit, gardener goes to arychnuyu irrigation system, that is probably higher than hilling bushes, leaving a narrow groove between them, and where the water pours. When watering is not necessary to loosen the soil, as in the main root zone, it remains loose and the water flows through the grooves. By the time of ripening the lower tier of leaves should be removed to improve airflow inside the bush. It is necessary to prevent fungal diseases. Remove the lower leaves did not affect the crop. If, however, fungal disease of tomatoes found a gardener fights against it with copper sulphate, or extracts from wood ash (10 r ash per liter of water). Watering is done twice.